Snake Venom [Notes]

IN Rigged-AGENDA

Ok, I’ll bite… I don’t normally jump on anything until it’s grown some legs, but that’s probably why it took me over a year to figure out the fact-checkers/media-lockstep, and why I wasted the first year in scientific journal publications trying to understand “SARS-CoV-2” and how the vaccines worked.

Recently, the documentary “Watch the Water” featuring Dr Bryan Ardis hypothesizes that COVID or a new bioweapon created by gain-of-function research with “snake venom” peptides tied to a virus, could be what we are dealing with.

Normally I’d wait for more evidence before something gets my precious research time (… but I didn’t jump on the Graphene train until the UK/NZ labs added their findings to the list of about 30 countries who were already blowing the whistle, and most definitely should’ve looked into that one sooner because I was wrong about that one not having legs).

Today I’m just going to take some notes to look at the evidence provided – just to see why this is a hypothesis and whether it might have legs.

This will be yet another “living document” where I just record my notes whenever I look into this hypothesis. First published: 14th April, 2022 | Last updated: 21st April, 2022

My “thoughts” after going through what you see listed below is that there is no snake venom to worry about pertaining to how it was explained in the documentary (yes, snake venom & synthetic venom(s) of all kinds of poisons are in a lot of things, and Evil-only knows what’s really in those jabs), but the snake-symbolism can be used as a metaphor-warning for the NWO takeover, this insidious, evil war we’re in-full of globalist snakes and their shills with disinformation & propaganda everywhere. I’m more concerned with the ‘snakes’ orchestrating and carrying out this war on humanity and the other weapons being thrown at us (geo-engineering, radiation, graphene, nanotech, transhumanism, GMOs, the social-credit system, etc.) than the snake ‘venom’ in the water-but check out the ‘antidotes’ section if you’re worried about venom to dissipate any fears you have about it. There’s also the fact that this is a global experiment, and all sorts of shit could be being used, and they definitely do experiment with poisons such as snake and snail venom. Our health agencies are captured, our governments are captured, there is no honest oversight to what they are doing to our world.

First the Patents

Venom in the Injections?

Venom in the Injections (summary of below resources)
(PATENT list IS from THE SNAKE VENOM VIDEO with Dr Love (see video section) – I have not searched all the patents yet to verify / confirm what she is talking about or looking for – this whole post is just my “Notes/Draft” page, where I’m taking notes (for myself) to try and figure this out.. didn’t realize so many people would find it, my blog is usually pretty empty as Google hates me.. lol.. so just be aware, this entire page is my “notes” my … “taking notes to try and figure this theory out“)

  • Janssen (the manufacturer’s of J&J Covid Jabs) have 3 patents containing Snake Venom for “SARS-COV-2 vaccines”)
  • US Military have a patent containing Snake Venom for “Vaccines against SARS-COV-2 and other coronaviruses”.
  • BioNTech US Inc. (the co-manufacturers of Pfizer Covid Jabs) have a patent containing Snake Venom for “Coronavirus vaccines”

I’m not sure if we’re looking at “snake venom” or whet everyone is assuming sPLA2-IIA is strictly snake venom because the term sPLA2-IIA is also used interchangeably with “Human sPLA2-IIA“. (01)

There are also many patents containing snake venom for therapeutic uses that either “stimulate” an immune reaction, or for treating those suffering from autoimmune disorders & other conditions.

Janssen (J&J)

Janssen (J&J)

  1. WO2021155323A1 (August 5, 2021), Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (02)
    • Compositions and methods for preventing and treating coronavirus infection-sars-cov-2 vaccines “A vaccine against COVID-19 to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals 18 years of age and older, comprising a recombinant human adenovirus of serotype 26 that contains nucleic acid encoding a SARS-CoV-2 S protein or fragment thereof.”
  2. US20210346492A1 (November 5th, 2021), Janssen Pharmaceuticals (03)
    • SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines “RNA replicons encoding coronavirus S proteins, in particular SARS-CoV-2 S proteins, are described. Also described are pharmaceutical compositions and uses of the RNA replicons.”
  3. WO2021229448A1 (November 5th, 2021), Janssen Pharmaceuticals (04)
    • Rna replicon encoding a stabilized corona virus spike protein “RNA replicons encoding stabilized recombinant pre-fusion SARS CoV-2 S proteins are described. Also described are pharmaceutical compositions and uses of the RNA replicons.”

US Military

US Military

  1. WO2021178971A1 (August 3rd, 2021) Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, INc., The Government of the United States, as represented by The Secretary of the Army (US Military) (05)
    • Vaccines against sars-cov-2 and other coronaviruses “RNA replicons encoding coronavirus S proteins, in particular SARS-CoV-2 S proteins, are described. Also described are pharmaceutical compositions and uses of the RNA replicons.”

BioNTech US Inc. (Pfizer)

BioNTech US Inc. (Pfizer)

  1. WO2021188969A2 (September 23rd, 2021) Biontech Us Inc. (06)
    • Coronavirus vaccines and methods of use “Compositions and methods for the prevention and/or treatment of a viral infection, in particular of the Coronaviridae family”

List of Patents Derived From Snake (Other)

(Potentially-Relevant)

List of Patents Derived From Snake (e.g, Venom, Etc.)

They look to be used to either “stimulate” an immune reaction, or for treating those suffering from autoimmune disorders & other conditions.

  • CA2806790C (October 10, 2018), Paul Reid (07)
    • Composition and method for oral delivery of cobra venom
    • Publication number: 20140030354 | Filed: October 1, 2013
    • Abstract: A composition of sterile cobra venom and a method for its oral administration to provide significant analgesic effects to a human and/or animal are disclosed. Such cobra venom compositions comprise a sterilized solution preserved by the addition of one or more suitable food-grade preservatives. The venom composition may be conveniently administered orally by means of a metered spray device.

  • US8278265B2 (October 2, 2012), Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo FAPESP (08)
    • Methods, kits and compositions comprising crotamine
    • Patent number: 8278265
    • Abstract: The present invention refers to uses of crotamine and compositions containing it, based on its characteristic of interaction with genetic material. Under submicromolar quantities, the polypeptide is no longer toxic, presenting the characteristics properties of cell penetration, transport of molecules to the surface, cytoplasm or cell nucleus and particularly, selective cell penetration. The invention also refers to compositions comprising a pharmaceutically effective concentration of crotamine and its use for the treatment of diseases and dysfunctions, based on its characteristics of interaction with genetic material, such as DNA and RNA, and cell selectivity.
    • Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    • Assignee: Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo—FAPESP
  • (Crotamine is a toxin present in the venom of the South American (Crotalus durissus terrificus) & North American (Crotalus viridis viridis) rattlesnake.)

  • US7758894B2 (July 2010), ReceptoPharm Inc (09)
    • Modified elapid venoms as stimulators of the immune reaction was granted in July, 2010 with 14 claims. The patent describes a method of protection from infections by administering a detoxified and neurotropically active modified venom containing alpha-cobratoxin. Protection includes bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. This patent is meant to protect and support our work in our production of anti-infective treatments. Currently, this would be applied to RPI-MN and RPI-78.
  • US20060088843A1 (September, 2005), ReceptoPharm Inc (10)
    • Modified venom and venom components as anti-retroviral agents with 10 claims was filed in September 2005. The present invention describes a method of treatment of human subject suffering from infection with HIV, comprising administering a disease mitigating amount of a detoxified, modified cobra venom composition in an amount effective to ameliorate at least one symptom of said infection. This patent is meant to protect and support our work in the production of anti-viral treatments. Currently, this would be applied to RPI-MN and RPI-78.
  • US20080254137A1 (April, 2007), ReceptoPharm Inc (11)
    • Treatment of Autoimmune Disorders Using Detoxified Cobratoxin was filed in April 2007. The patent describes a method of treating patients suffering from autoimmune disorders comprising the administration of detoxified cobra venom. This patent is meant to protect and support our work in the production of drugs for the treatment of auto-immune diseases. Currently, this would be applied to RPI-78MN.

  • CN-102178928-A (April, 2011) Kunming Maobo Biolog Technology Co Ltd. (12)
    • Application of cobra venom neurotoxin in drugs for treating ametropia
    • The invention relates to application of cobra venom neurotoxin in pharmacy, particularly in drugs for treating ametropia, belonging to technical field of biomedicine. The invention particularly relates to application of cobra venom neurotoxin or a hydrolyzed fragment of the neurotoxin. The neurotoxin or the hydrolyzed fragment of the neurotoxin can be an active ingredient used for preparing drugs for treating ametropia only or together with antibiotics. According to the invention, as an active ingredient for treating ametropia, the cobra venom neurotoxin with low dosage not only can stop signal transduction of neuromuscular junctions, but also can adjust a receptor of the cobra venom neurotoxin to balance a nerve-muscle function, thereby achieving the aim of treating ametropia.
  • (Ametropia refers to a group of visual disorders caused by errors in the refractive power of the eye)

List of Patents Derived From Snake (Collections)
Big Business ($$$$)

The Antivenom Market was valued at USD 969.38 million in 2020 and it is anticipated to reach USD 1585.01 million in 2026. (13)

Mentioned in the report:

  • Allison Medical
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Bharat Serums and Vaccines Ltd
  • Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
  • Boston Scientific Corporation
  • CSL Limited
  • Dickinson and Company
  • Flynn Pharma Ltd (Micropharm)
  • Incepta Pharma.
  • Merck & Co., Inc.
  • Merck KGaA (Sigma Aldrich)
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Rare Disease Therapeutics, Inc
  • Terumo Corporation
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific

Video - Spike Protein Patents - Karen Kingston

  • US20200061185A1 Prefusion coronavirus spike proteins and their use, filed in April 2019, Inventors: Barney Graham (NIAID), Jason McLellan (Moderna) (15)

Karen’s questions:

  1. How did they file the patent for the spike protein 8 months earlier?
  2. Why is there a patent separate than the spike protein?
  3. Why are the spike proteins called “SARS-Cov-2 proteins” in the patent?
  4. There’s also one called Wuhan Institute of Virology Spike Protein 2
  5. GeoVax owned by Vanguard

My questions (to Karen, or anyone… )

  1. Is SARS-CoV substitution “SARS-S-2P”, SARS-Cov-2? – (Because the patent doesn’t mention SARS-CoV-2, it mentions SARS-S-2P) – did you match it somehow to SARS-CoV-2? (Basically, If they are the same, how do you know?)
    • (I’m not doubting that evil is control of “science” right now or what is going on in the world… nor NIAID & Moderna’s involvement… trying to figure out how you know/think these are the same? A devil’s advocate would say they created spike proteins based on the known-past viruses and these are models?)
      • And playing devil’s advocate right back at Moderna.. for some reason they are able to miraculously create the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a couple of days and have it in bodies 66 days later and miraculously are able to manufacture & deliver millions of these vials all over the world… but they can’t make a Omicron vaccine in the same time-frame.. (I think we know already that they created these things years ago, but need relevant evidence)
    • Most interesting in this patent regardless if they are the same or not, is the “connection” between Moderna and the Wuhan Lab.

Video - Snake Venom Patents - Dr Aryiana Love

  • For those who came across my post, this is the video where I got the patent ID’s from – so if Dr Love is right, the patents she lists are right, but if she’s wrong, the patents she lists are wrong. Need to investigate further to validate.

Symptoms of Snake Venom

Collation of symptoms of Snake-Bite or Spit-Venom

Symptoms of Snake-Bite or Spit-Venom (collated from below references)

  • Neurological (Dizziness, disturbed vision, headache, seizures. Mental status changes, delirium. Coma, faintness, collapse. Chronic neurological deficits after strokes. Drowsiness. )
  • Coagulative & Vascular (Blood clotting & Bleeding disorders. Thrombotic strokes. Blood vessel damage. Endothelial cell damage. Disturbances of Circulation. Hemorrhage. Incoagulable blood. Abnormally low levels of platelets. Circulatory failure. Increased vascular permeability. Vascular endothelium damage. Capillary leak syndrome.)
  • Respiratory (Labored breathing. Excess fluid in the lungs. Respiratory failure.)
  • Cardiac (Rapid heart rate, weak pulse, low blood pressure. Hypotension, Cardiac arrhythmias. Myocardial damage. Cardiac arrest.)
  • Gut (Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea. Stomach pain. Difficulty swallowing. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage)
  • Liver (Thrombin-like enzymes have direct action on fibrinogen)
  • Kidneys (Acute Kidney Failure/Injury. Hyperkalaemia. Renal failure. Lower back pain. Uraemia. Chronic kidney disease.)
  • Taste (Metallic, mint, or rubber taste in mouth)
  • Fluids (Increased salvation/sweating)
  • Muscles (Numbness, tingling, twitching, stinging, or abnormal feelings. Muscle cell plasma membrane damage. Muscle weakness, tender, stiffness or painful on passive stretching. Paralysis.)
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Skin: (Rashes, Swelling, bruising, bleeding, itchy, raised, red or skin-coloured. Necrosis (if serious, amputation or disfigurement). Infection. Haemorrhage from small blood vessels.)
  • Lymph (lymphangitis, lymph node enlargement)
  • Urine – (Red or Dark Brown/Black. Oliguria)
  • Face: (Drooping or falling of the upper eyelid)
  • Testicular or Vaginal: (Testicular atrophy. Vaginal bleeding. Loss of libido.)

Snake Bite - CDC.gov

Symptoms of Snake-Bite (CDC.gov) (17)

  • Labored breathing (in extreme cases, breathing may stop altogether)
  • Rapid heart rate, weak pulse, low blood pressure
  • Disturbed vision
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Metallic, mint, or rubber taste in the mouth
  • Increased salivation and sweating
  • Numbness or tingling around face and/or limbs
  • Muscle twitching

Snake Bite - HealthDirect.gov.au

Symptoms of Snake-Bite (HealthDirect.gov.au) (18)

  • Anaphylactic shock
    • difficult or noisy breathing
    • difficulty talking and/or a hoarse voice
    • a swollen tongue
    • persistent dizziness or collapse
    • swelling or tightness in the throat
    • being pale and floppy (young children)
    • wheeze or persistent cough
    • abdominal pain or vomiting
  • Venomous bites
    • severe pain around the bite — this might come on later
    • swelling, bruising or bleeding from the bite
    • swollen and tender glands in the armpit or groin of the limb that has been bitten
    • tingling, stinging, burning or abnormal feelings around the skin
    • feeling anxious
    • nausea (feeling sick) or vomiting (being sick)
    • dizziness
    • blurred vision
    • headache
    • breathing difficulties
    • problems swallowing
    • stomach pain
    • irregular heartbeat
    • muscle weakness
    • confusion
    • blood oozing from the gums or the site of the snake bite
    • collapse
    • paralysis, coma or even death

Snake Bite - SnakeHelpline.com

General Symptoms of Snakebite (SnakeHelpline.com) (19)

  • Hemorrhagin directly damages the blood vessels by loosening the gaps between endothelial cells, thus injuring the basement membrane of the capillaries.
  • Pitting edema Edema is swelling in the body caused by excess fluid. If you press on a swollen area and an indentation or pit remains, it’s called pitting edema.
  • Incoagulable blood where the blood will not clot in the 20 minutes WBCT
  • Blisters-resulting in the accumulation of a proteinaceous fluid as a consequence of the collection of woundexudate.
  • Hemoglobinuria caused by intravascular hemolysis. Red colour urine
  • Hematuria or havingpassed dark brown/black urine.
  • Urticaria- Some people develop skin rashes triggered by the reaction of ASV after its administration; the skin becomes itchy, raised, red or skin-coloured.
  • Ptosis– is the drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
  • Haematemesis is the vomiting of blood. It is caused from the internal bleeding after from the gastrointestinal tract by the effect of haemotoxic venom of Russell’s viper.
  • Necrosis is caused by due the effect of cytotoxic factors of snake venom which result in the unregulated digestion of cell components.
  • Dysphagia is the medical term for swallowing difficulties. Some people with dysphagia have problems swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others can’t swallow at all.
  • Pulmonary edema: Pulmonary edema is a fatal manifestation of snakebites and can occur with both viper and elapid bites.Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
  • Cellulitis: A common and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. There is swelling of cells. Caused due to the anaerobic bacteria present in the snake’s mouth.
  • Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants, less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children, and less than 400 mL or 500 mL per 24h in adults – this equals 17 or 21 mL/hour.
  • Haemoptysis is the coughing of blood.

Snake Venom - Symptoms - WHO

Symptoms of Snake Venom (WHO) (20)

  • Local envenoming
    • Swelling and bruising result from increased vascular permeability attributable to venom endopeptidases, metalloproteinase hemorrhagins, membrane-damaging polypeptide toxins, phospholipases, and endogenous autacoids released by the venom, such as histamine, 5-HT, and kinins.
    • Local tissue necrosis results from the direct action of myotoxins and cytotoxins, and ischemia caused by thrombosis; compression of blood vessels by first-aid methods such as tight tourniquets; or by swollen muscle within a tight fascial compartment.
    • Myotoxins damage the muscle cell plasma membrane directly.
    • Most are PLA2s, either enzymatically active (aspartate-49) or enzymatically inactive (lysine-49). Cobra cardiotoxins are low-molecular weight polypeptides with cytotoxic action.
  • Hypotension and shock
    • After viper bites, leakage of plasma or blood into the bitten limb and elsewhere, or massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage, may cause hypovolaemia.
    • Vasodilation, especially of splanchnic vessels, and a direct effect on the myocardium may contribute to hypotension.
    • Profound hypotension is part of the autopharmacological syndrome that occurs within minutes of bites by D. siamensis, D. russelii, and Australasian elapids, attributable to oligopeptides (ACE inhibitors and BPPs) and vasodilating autacoids.
    • In some cases, direct myocardial effects of venom may be suggested by electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and autopsy findings of epicardial or endocardial haemorrhages and histopathological evidence of cardiac myonecrosis.
  • Bleeding and blood clotting disturbances
    • Snake venoms affect haemostasis in several ways.
    • Procoagulant enzymes activate intravascular coagulation, producing consumption coagulopathy and incoagulable blood.
    • Procoagulants of Colubridae, Australasian Elapidae, Echis, and Daboia species activate prothrombin, whereas those in venoms of Daboia russelii and D. siamensis also activate factors V and X.
    • Thrombin-like enzymes in pit-viper venoms have a direct action on fibrinogen.
    • Some venoms cause defibrinogenation by activating the endogenous fibrinolytic (plasmin) system.
    • Anticoagulant activity is attributable to venom phospholipases.
    • Platelet activation or inhibition results in thrombocytopenia in victims of Trimeresurus and Viridovipera species, Calloselasma rhodostoma, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and Daboia siamensis.
    • Potentially lethal spontaneous systemic bleeding is attributable venom haemorrhagins (Zn metalloproteases).
  • Complement Activation
    • Elapid and some colubroid venoms activate complement via the alternative pathway (“cobra venom factor” is the snake’s C3b), whereas some viperid venoms activate the classic pathway. Complement activation affects platelets, the blood coagulation system, and other humoral mediators.
  • Neurotoxicity
    • Neurotoxic polypeptides and PLA2s of snake venoms cause paralysis by blocking transmission at the neuromuscular junction.
    • Patients with paralysis of the bulbar muscles may die of upper airway obstruction or aspiration, but the most common mode of death after neurotoxic envenoming is respiratory paralysis.
    • By prolonging activity of ACh at neuromuscular junctions, anticholinesterase drugs may improve paralytic symptoms in patients bitten by snakes with neurotoxins that are predominantly postsynaptic in their action (e.g., cobras and Australasian death adders [genus Acanthophis]).
    • Some patients bitten by elapids or vipers are drowsy in the absence of respiratory or circulatory failure. This is unlikely to be an effect of neurotoxic polypeptides, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • Myotoxicity
    • PLA2 myotoxins and metalloproteinases are principally responsible.
    • They are present in venoms of most species of sea snakes, many terrestrial Australasian elapids, some species of krait (Bungarus), and Viperidae, such as the Sri Lankan Russell’s viper (D. russelii).
    • Release into the bloodstream of myoglobin, muscle enzymes, uric acid, potassium, and other muscle constituents is an effect in humans of presynaptic neurotoxins.
    • Patients may die of bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness, acute hyperkalaemia, or acute kidney injury.
  • Acute kidney injury
    • A wide range of renal histological changes has been described after snakebite.
    • Acute tubular necrosis is the most common, but proliferative glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, toxic mesangiolysis with platelet agglutination, fibrin deposition, ischaemic changes, and distal tubular damage (“lower nephron nephrosis”), suggesting direct venom nephrotoxicity attributable to venom PLA2 and metalloproteases, and bilateral renal cortical necrosis with subsequent calcification are also reported.
    • Antivenom can cause immune-complexmediated kidney injury.
    • Acute tubular necrosis may result from prolonged hypotension and hypovolaemia, DIC, direct toxic effect of the venom on the renal tubules, haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, and hyperkalaemia.
    • Russell’s viper venom produces hypotension, DIC, direct nephrotoxicity, and, in Sri Lanka and India, intravascular haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis.
    • In Burmese patients envenomed by Russell’s vipers (D. siamensis), high urinary concentrations of β2-microglobulin, retinal binding protein, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase suggested failure of proximal tubular reabsorption and tubular damage.
    • High plasma concentrations of active renin suggested that renal ischaemia with activation of the renin-angiotensin system was involved in development of renal failure.
    • A massive but transient capillary and glomerular leak of albumin was an early sign of oliguric renal failure.
    • Snake venom–induced DIC may result in deposition of fibrin on vascular endothelium that has been activated by, for example, metalloproteinases, producing microangiopathic haemolysis.
    • Although the clinical picture is reminiscent of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), there is no evidence of depleted ADAMTS-13 levels and, therefore no justification for cryosupernatant plasmapheresis.
  • Generalized increase in capillary permeability
    • Venoms of some Viperidae, such as D. russelii and D. siamensis, can cause a generalized increase in vascular permeability, resulting in pulmonary oedema, serous effusions, conjunctival, periorbital, facial and retinal oedema, bilateral parotid enlargement, albuminuria, and haemoconcentration.
    • The likely cause is metalloproteases that damage vascular endothelium.

Clinical syndromes of snakebite in South-East Asia - WHO

Snakebites (WHO) (21)

Clinical syndromes of snakebite in South-East Asia:

  • SYNDROME 1:
    • Local envenoming (swelling etc) with bleeding/clotting disturbances = Viperidae (all species)
  • SYNDROME 2:
    • Local envenoming (swelling etc) with bleeding/clotting disturbances, shock or acute kidney injury = Russell’s viper; with conjunctival oedema (chemosis) and acute pituitary insufficiency = Russell’s viper, Myanmar and South India with bilateral ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis etc. and dark brown urine = Russell’s viper, Sri Lanka and South India
  • SYNDROME 3:
    • Local envenoming (swelling etc.) with paralysis = cobra or king cobra
  • SYNDROME 4:
    • Paralysis with minimal or no local envenoming: Bitten on land while sleeping on the ground with/without abdominal pain = krait Bitten in the sea, estuary and some freshwater lakes = sea snake Bitten in Indonesia Maluku or West Papua with/without bleeding/clotting disturbance = Australasian elapid
  • SYNDROME 5:
    • Paralysis with dark brown urine and acute kidney injury: Bitten on land (with bleeding/clotting disturbance) = Russell’s viper, Sri Lanka or South India
  • Long term complications:
    • at the bite site – tissue loss, amputation, chronic ulceration (risk of malignant change), infection, osteomyelitis, arthritis, arthrodesis, contracture and hypertrophic or keloid scars cause permanent physical disability.
    • Chronic kidney disease, chronic panhypopituitarism, chronic neurological deficits after strokes.
    • Chronic psychological morbidity (depression, anxiety, impaired function, post-traumatic stress disorder, unexplained residual physical disability).
  • Cobra-spit ophthalmia:
    • there is immediate intense pain, profuse watering with whitish discharge, congested conjunctivae and spasm and swelling of eyelids.

Signs in the bitten part - WHO

Local symptoms and signs in the bitten part

  • fang marks, local pain, local bleeding, bruising
  • spreading local swelling
  • lymphangitis, lymph node enlargement
  • inflammation (swelling, redness, heat)
  • blistering
  • local infection, abscess formation
  • necrosis

Generalized Systemic Symptoms - WHO

Generalized (systemic) symptoms and signs

  • General
    • Fear, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, malaise, abdominal pain, weakness, drowsiness, prostration.
  • Cardiovascular (Viperidae)
    • Visual disturbances, dizziness, faintness, collapse, shock, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage (reduced ejection fraction).
  • Generalized increase in capillary permeability (“capillary leak syndrome”)
    • Facial and conjunctival oedema (chemosis)
    • bilateral parotid enlargement
    • pleural and pericardial effusions
    • pulmonary oedema
    • massive albuminuria
    • haemoconcentration.
  • Bleeding and clotting disorders (Viperidae)
    • traumatic bleeding from recent wounds (including prolonged bleeding from the fang marks and from old partly-healed wounds
    • spontaneous systemic bleeding
      • from gums, epistaxis, bleeding into the tears, intracranial haemorrhage (meningism from subarachnoid haemorrhage
    • lateralising signs and/or coma from cerebral haemorrhage
    • haemoptysis
    • rectal bleeding or melaena
    • haematuria
    • vaginal bleeding
    • bleeding into the mucosae
    • skin (petechiae, purpura, discoid haemorrhages
    • ecchymoses

Cerebral arterial thrombosis

  • Thrombotic strokes, confirmed by angiography or imaging

Neurological

  • Drowsiness
  • paraesthesiae
  • abnormalities of taste and smell
  • “heavy” eyelids
  • ptosis
  • external ophthalmoplegia
  • paralysis of facial muscles and other muscles innervated by the cranial nerves
  • nasal voice or aphonia
  • regurgitation through the nose
  • difficulty in swallowing secretions
  • respiratory
  • generalized flaccid paralysis.

Skeletal muscle breakdown

  • Generalized pain, stiffness and tenderness of muscles
  • pain on passive stretching
  • trismus
  • myoglobinuria
  • hyperkalaemia
  • cardiac arrest
  • acute kidney injury.

Renal

  • Loin (lower back) pain
  • haematuria
  • haemoglobinuria
  • myoglobinuria
  • oliguria/anuria
  • symptoms and signs of acute kidney injury/ uraemia (acidotic breathing, hiccups, nausea, pleuritic chest pain etc.)

Snake Bite - Clinical Effects - WHO

Clinical Effects of Snake Bites (WHO) (22)

  • Local and/or systemic envenoming affecting organs and tissues distant from bite site that may be transient, persistent, life-threatening or permanently debilitating
  • Signs of extreme anxiety prompted by the frightening experience:
    • hyperventilation, acroparaesthesiae, tetany, dizziness/syncope, vasovagal shock with profound bradycardia, diarrhoea and vomiting, agitation, irrational behaviour, hypertension, tachycardia, sweating, trembling that may mislead medical staff and lead to persistent psychological morbidity
  • Systemic envenoming:
    • nausea, vomiting, malaise, abdominal pain, weakness, drowsiness, prostration.
  • Cardiovascular (Viperidae):
    • visual disturbances, dizziness, faintness, collapse, shock, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage.
  • Generalized increase in capillary permeability:
    • facial, periorbital, conjunctival oedema (chemosis), bilateral parotid enlargement, pleural and pericardial effusions, pulmonary oedema, massive albuminuria, haemoconcentration.
  • Bleeding and clotting disorders (Viperidae):
    • local traumatic bleeding from recent and partly-healed wounds and venepuncture sites; spontaneous systemic bleeding (gums, epistaxis, haematemesis, meningism from subarachnoid haemorrhage, lateralising signs and/ or coma from cerebral haemorrhage/ thrombosis), haemoptysis, haematemesis, rectal bleeding or melaena, haematuria, vaginal bleeding, subconjunctival haemorrhages, skin petechiae, purpura, discoid haemorrhages, ecchymoses.
  • Neurological (Elapidae, Viperidae eg Russell’s viper D. russelii, Gloydius species):
    • bilateral ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, descending paralysis progressing to generalized flaccid paralysis.
  • Generalized rhabdomyolysis:
    • muscles stiff, tender, painful on passive stretching, trismus, dark brown urine.
  • Acute kidney injury:
    • loin (lower back) pain, haematuria, haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, oliguria/anuria, uraemia (acidotic breathing, hiccups, nausea, pleuritic chest pain, encephalopathy).
  • Acute pituitary insufficiency (Russell’s viper):
    • acute – shock, hypoglycaemia; chronic – weakness, loss of secondary sexual hair, loss of libido, amenorrhoea, testicular atrophy, hypothyroidism etc.

Black Mamba Snake Bite

Symptoms of a Black Mamba Snake Bite (symptoma.com) (23)

  • The site of the snakebite 
    • pain, warmth, bruising, hemorrhagic-swelling, and necrosis 
  • The snake venom may lead to
    • toxicity of the cardiovascular, nervous, renal, muscular, and hematologic systems
  • Features include:
    • nausea, trouble swallowing, epistaxis, hemoptysis, paresthesia, and syncope.
  • Additionally, patients develop:
    • seizures and mental status changes such as delirium and possibly coma.
  • Serious outcomes include:
    • disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC)
    • renal failure
    • intracranial hemorrhage 
    • respiratory distress 
    • shock
  • If tissue necrosis occurs, this may lead to:
    • compartment syndrome and subsequent digit amputation
    • long-term disability and disfigurement secondary to tissue necrosis

Symptoms of COVID-19

Collation of symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms of COVID-19 & Coronaviruses (collated from below references)

Common

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Emergency

  • Trouble breathing
  • Constant pain or pressure in your chest
  • Bluish lips or face
  • Sudden confusion
  • Having a hard time staying awake

Other

  • Pinkeye
  • Swollen eyes
  • Fainting
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Coughing up blood
  • Blood clots
  • Seizures
  • Heart problems
  • Kidney damage
  • Liver problems or damage
  • Some doctors have reported rashes tied to COVID-19, including purple or blue lesions on children’s toes and feet.

Critical

  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • septic shock that may represent virus-induced distributive shock
  • cardiac dysfunction
  • an exaggerated inflammatory response and/or exacerbation of underlying comorbidities
  • pulmonary disease
  • cardiac disease
  • hepatic disease
  • renal disease
  • central nervous system disease
  • thrombotic disease

Symptoms of COVID-19 - CDC

Symptoms of COVID-19 – (CDC.gov) – March 22, 2022 (24)

People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Anyone can have mild to severe symptoms. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

This list does not include all possible symptoms. CDC will continue to update this list as we learn more about COVID-19. Older adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness.

Symptoms of Coronavirus - WebMD

Symptoms of Coronavirus (Accessed Apr 17, 2022) – (WebMD) (25)

Common:

(Exactly same as CDC list)

Emergency:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Constant pain or pressure in your chest
  • Bluish lips or face
  • Sudden confusion
  • Having a hard time staying awake

Other:

  • Pinkeye
  • Swollen eyes
  • Fainting
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Coughing up blood
  • Blood clots
  • Seizures
  • Heart problems
  • Kidney damage
  • Liver problems or damage
  • Some doctors have reported rashes tied to COVID-19, including purple or blue lesions on children’s toes and feet.

Symptoms of COVID-19 (Severe) - NIH

Symptoms of COVID-19 (Severe) (NIH) (Accessed April 17, 2022) (26)

Critical Illness

Critically ill patients may have

  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • septic shock that may represent virus-induced distributive shock
  • cardiac dysfunction
  • an exaggerated inflammatory response and/or exacerbation of underlying comorbidities
  • pulmonary disease
  • cardiac disease
  • hepatic disease
  • renal disease
  • central nervous system disease
  • thrombotic disease

Side-effects of Remdesivir

Collation of Remdesivir side-effects

Remdesivir Side-Effects (collated from below references)

  • back pain
  • chest tightness
  • chills
  • cough
  • dark-colored urine
  • difficulty swallowing
  • fast heartbeat
  • fever
  • flushing
  • headache
  • hives, itching
  • light-colored stools
  • nausea and vomiting
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • stomach pain, continuing
  • trouble breathing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • yellow eyes or skin
  • bleeding
  • blistering
  • burning
  • coldness
  • discoloration of skin
  • feeling of pressure
  • infection
  • inflammation
  • lumps
  • numbness
  • pain, stinging, soreness, tenderness
  • redness, scarring
  • swelling
  • tingling
  • ulceration
  • seizures
  • skin rash
  • death
  • Respiratory disorders NEC
  • Lower respiratory tract disorders (excluding obstruction and infection)
  • Cardiac disorders
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Coronary artery disorders
  • Heart failures
  • Renal and urinary disorders
  • Renal disorders (excluding nephropathies)
  • Urinary tract signs and symptoms
  • Nephropathies
  • Infections and infestations
  • Viral infectious disorders
  • Infections—pathogen unspecified
  • Bacterial infectious disorders
  • Hepatobiliary disorders
  • Hepatic and hepatobiliary disorders
  • Vascular disorders
  • Decreased and nonspecific blood pressure disorders and shock
  • Embolism and thrombosis
  • Vascular hypertensive disorders
  • Nervous system disorders
  • Neurological disorders NEC
  • Central nervous system vascular disorders
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  • Epidermal and dermal conditions
  • Skin appendage conditions
  • Angioedema and urticaria

Remdesivir Side-Effects - Drugs.com

Remdesivir Side-Effects (drugs.com) (27)

Common

  • back pain
  • chest tightness
  • chills
  • cough
  • dark-colored urine
  • difficulty swallowing
  • fast heartbeat
  • fever
  • flushing
  • headache
  • hives, itching
  • light-colored stools
  • nausea and vomiting
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • stomach pain, continuing
  • trouble breathing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • yellow eyes or skin

Less Common

  • Seizures
  • skin rash

Remdesivir Side-Effects - MayoClinic

Remdesivir Side-Effects – (MayoClinic)

(Exactly same list as Drugs.com above) as well as:

  • bleeding
  • blistering
  • burning
  • coldness
  • discoloration of skin
  • feeling of pressure
  • hives
  • infection
  • inflammation
  • itching
  • lumps
  • numbness
  • pain
  • rash
  • redness
  • scarring
  • soreness
  • stinging
  • swelling
  • tenderness
  • tingling
  • ulceration
  • warmth at the injection site

Remdesivir Side-Effects - Study 2021

Remdesivir Side-Effects – (PMC8308754) July, 2021 (28)

This study showed that remdesivir could be associated to risk of cardiac events. 

Most frequently reported events:

  • hepatic/hepatobiliary disorders (19.4%)
  • renal and urinary disorders (11.1%)
  • cardiac events (8.4%)
  • showed improvement (11%)
  • events not resolved (13.5%)
  • fatal outcome (30.3%)
  • serious adverse events (82.2%)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Coronary artery disorders
  • Cardiac and vascular investigations
  • Heart failures
  • Cardiac disorders
  • Myocardial disorders

Fatal outcomes
General system disorders NEC
Therapeutic and nontherapeutic effects

Respiratory disorders NEC)
Lower respiratory tract disorders (excluding obstruction and infection)
Infections—pathogen unspecified
Cardiac disorders
Cardiac arrhythmias
Coronary artery disorders
Heart failures

Renal and urinary disorders
Renal disorders (excluding nephropathies)
Urinary tract signs and symptoms
Nephropathies

Infections and infestations
Viral infectious disorders
Infections—pathogen unspecified
Bacterial infectious disorders

Hepatobiliary disorders
Hepatic and hepatobiliary disorders

Vascular disorders
Decreased and nonspecific blood pressure disorders and shock
Embolism and thrombosis
Vascular hypertensive disorders

Nervous system disorders
Neurological disorders NEC
Central nervous system vascular disorders
Seizures (incl. subtypes)

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Epidermal and dermal conditions
Skin appendage conditions
Angioedema and urticaria

Our findings, in line with other recent studies, highlighted that remdesivir could be potentially associated, compared to other cardiotoxic drugs, to cardiac events, especially cardiac arrhythmias.

Clinical Investigations and Laboratory Diagnosis

Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis

Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Snake Bites (collated from below resources)

  • 20WBCT (20 minute Whole Blood Clotting Test)
  • INR (International Normalized Ratio) and D-dimer tests (detect blood coagulation)
  • Haemoglobin concentration / haematocrit (detect increase in capillary permeability)
  • Platelet count (detect decreased platelet count)
  • White blood cell count
  • Blood film (detect fragmented red cells)
  • Finger oximeter (detect respiratory failure or shock)
  • Urine examination (colour), and microscopy (detect bleeding or eosinophils)
  • Chest radiography (detect haemorrhages)
  • Ultrasound (detect deep vein thrombosis)
  • Echocardiography (detect myocardial dysfunction)
  • CT & MRI imaging (detect haemorrhages, tissue necrosis, bone infections)
  • ECG (detect arrhythmias, myocardial damage, elevated potassium levels)

White blood cell count increase - C19 Vaccines

  • Moderna COVID Vaccine and Csf white blood cell count increased (29) (Csf white blood cell count increased is found among people who get Moderna COVID Vaccine, especially for people who are male, 60+ old, and in the first week of getting the vaccine.)
  • Pfizer BioNTech Covid Vaccine and Csf white blood cell count increased (30) (Csf white blood cell count increased is found among people who get Pfizer BioNTech Covid Vaccine, especially for people who are male, 60+ old, and in the first week of getting the vaccine.)
  • Johnson and Johnson Covid Vaccine and Csf white blood cell count increased (31) (Csf white blood cell count increased is found among people who get Johnson and Johnson Covid Vaccine, especially for people who are male, 60+ old, and in the first 30 days of getting the vaccine.)

Hmm but latest Pfizer/FDA doc-dump show that the White-Blood Cell Counts DECREASE. I haven’t done a post on the latest doc drop yet because I’m working on something else just as important, if not more so, but you can download the docs from this site and then look for others who have reviewed them: https://phmpt.org/

Snake Venom - Laboratory Tests - WHO

Investigations/laboratory tests for Snakebites (WHO) (32)

  • Investigations/laboratory tests:
    • 20 minute whole blood clotting test (20WBCT) is a simple, informative bedside test requiring only a new, clean, dry, ordinary glass tube, bottle, vial or syringe.
    • Positive (non-clotting) result indicates severe consumption coagulopathy and need for immediate antivenom treatment. False positive (non-clotting) 20WBCT results from use of plastic, polystyrene or polypropylene rather than ordinary glass, or glass cleaned with detergent, soap or washing fluid that destroy surfaceactivation of blood coagulation.
    • If new glass tubes not available, re-use ordinary glass vessels (e.g. antibiotic bottles), washed with “normal 0.9% saline” for intravenous infusion, without detergent or other cleaning agent, dried in hot air.
  • Other more sensitive laboratory tests of blood coagulation:
    • International Normalized Ratio (INR) based on prothrombin time (PT) (> or =1.2 is abnormal), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPPT), fibrin(ogen) related antigens (fibrin degradation products -FDP) or D-dimer.
    • Point-of-care (bedside) devices for measuring INR and D-dimer unreliable in snakebite victims.
  • Other laboratory tests:
    • haemoglobin concentration/haematocrit, thrombocytopenia, neutrophil leucocytosis, fragmented red cells (“helmet cell”, schistocytes) signifying microangiopathic haemolysis.
    • Observe spontaneously sedimented plasma for haemoglobinaemia/ myoglobinaemia.
  • Biochemical abnormalities:
    • plasma creatinine, urea/blood urea nitrogen and potassium concentrations raised in acute kidney injury.
    • Elevated aminotransferases and muscle enzymes (creatine kinase, aldolase etc.) indicate local and generalized muscle damage.
    • Hyponatraemia associated with krait bites.
  • Urine examination:
    • dipsticks test for blood, haemoglobin or myoglobin and proteinuria.
    • Microscopy to detect erythrocytes and red cell casts, indicating glomerular bleeding, eosinophilia suggesting acute interstitial nephritis.
  • Other investigations:
    • chest radiography for detecting pulmonary oedema, haemorrhages, infarcts, pleural effusions, secondary bronchopneumonia;
    • ultrasound for assessing local envenoming, deep vein thrombosis, pleural and pericardial effusion and bleeding;
    • echocardiography for myocardial dysfunction;
    • CT and MRI imaging for intracranial and spinal haemorrhages and infarcts and osteomyelitis at the bite site;
    • ECG for arrhythmias, myocardial damage, evidence of hyperkalaemia.

Snake Venom - Rapid Diagnostic Tests

ICT-Cobra

  • 2020 –  A Rapid and International Applicable Diagnostic Device for Cobra (Genus Naja) Snakebites – Toxins (Basel). (33)
    • “We have designed a rapid test, immunochromatographic test of cobra (ICT-Cobra), which obtained fair results in improving the diagnosis and treatment of Naja (N.) atra snakebites in Taiwan. In this study, we further investigated the feasibility of applying the kit for the detection of other cobra venoms based on the potential interspecies similarity. “

ICT-Viper

Composition of Snake Venom

Composition of Snake Venom

Here I’ll collect information about the composition of snake venom to get more of an understanding of what they are talking about.

Snake Venom - Composition - Phospholipase A2

Phospholipase A2 family – VenomZone (37)

Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) (EC 3.1.1.4) are small (about 14 kDa), stable, calcium-dependent, disulfide-rich enzymes. They degrade membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position, releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. They are ubiquitously found in nature ih both intracellular and extracellular forms.

In mammals, PLA2s play important roles in fertilization, cell proliferation, smooth muscle contraction, hypersensitization and chronic inflammatory diseases. They are also important in cellular functions such as signal transduction via biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and membrane homeostasis including the maintenance of cellular phospholipid pools and membrane repair through deacylation/reacylation (Kini, 2003). (38)

Venom PLA2s are produced by almost all venomous animals, with snake venom PLA2s (svPLA2s) being the most studied. svPLA2s, in addition to their possible role in the digestion of the prey, show a wide variety of pharmacological effects. They exhibit pre-/post-synaptic neurotoxicity, myonecrosis, cardiotoxicity, anticoagulant property, inhibition/activation of platelet aggregation, hemorrhage, hemolysis, hypotensive and edema-inducing activities. Natural catalytically inactive (Lys49-PLA2s or PLA2 homologs) and the chemically inactivated svPLA2 enzymes conserve some of their biological activities.

  • Activity: myotoxin – local and systemic skeletal muscle degeneration.
  • Activity: postsynaptic neurotoxin – competitively block acetylcholine receptors.
  • Activity: presynaptic neurotoxin – PLA2 neurotoxins interfere specifically with the release of acetylcholine from motor neurons, and their PLA2 activity is essential for the irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission.
  • Activity: blood coagulation cascade inhibiting toxin.
  • Activity: hemolysis – disruption of the cell membrane.
  • Activity: platelet aggregation activating toxin – PLA2s can induce platelet aggregation by release of arachidonic acid.
  • Activity: platelet aggregation inhibiting toxin – PLA2s can inhibit platelet aggregation by physical destruction of the integrity of the platelet membrane via hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipids, which could affect the functions of receptors that play important roles in platelet aggregation.

Snake Venom - Composition - WHO

Snake Venom Composition (WHO) (39)

  • Venom composition:
    • More than 90% of snake venom (dry weight) is protein.
    • Each venom contains more than a hundred different proteins: enzymes (constituting 80-90 % of viperid and 25- 70 % of elapid venoms), non-enzymatic polypeptide toxins, and non-toxic proteins such as nerve growth factor.
    • Nonprotein ingredients include carbohydrates and metals (often part of glycoprotein metalloprotein enzymes), lipids, free amino acids, nucleosides, and biogenic amines such as serotonin and acetylcholine.
  • Venom enzymes:
    • These include digestive hydrolases (proteinases, exopeptidase, endopeptidases, phosphodiesterases, metalloproteinases, and phospholipases), hyaluronidase (spreading fator), and activators or inactivators of physiological processes, such as kininogenases.
    • Most venoms contain l-amino acid oxidase (containing a riboflavin 5’-phosphate prosthetic group that confers the yellow colour of many venoms), phospho monoand di- esterases, 5′-nucleotidase, DNAase, NAD-nucleosidase, phospholipase A2, and peptidases.
  • Zinc metalloproteinases/ metalloproteases (metalloproteinaselike, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich) haemorrhagins (snake venom metalloproteinases, SVMPs):
    • degrade basement membrane components, leading to endothelial cell damage and contributing to spontaneous systemic bleeding.
  • Procoagulant enzymes:
    • venoms of Viperidae and some Elapidae and Colubridae contain serine proteases and other procoagulant enzymes that are thrombin-like or activate factors V, X, prothrombin and other clotting factors.
    • These enzymes stimulate blood clotting with formation of fibrin in the blood stream.
    • Paradoxically, this process results in incoagulable blood because most of the fibrin clot is broken down immediately by the body’s own plasmin fibrinolytic system.
    • Sometimes within 30 minutes of the bite, the levels of clotting factors have been so depleted that the blood will not clot (“consumption coagulopathy”).
    • Some venoms contain multiple antihaemostatic factors. For example, Russell’s viper venom contains toxins that activate factors II (prothrombin), V, X, IX and XIII, fibrinolysis and protein C, and cause platelet aggregation, anticoagulation and haemorrhage.
  • Phospholipases A2 (lecithinase):
    • are most widespread and extensively studied of all venom enzymes.
    • They damage mitochondria, red blood cells, leucocytes, platelets, peripheral nerve endings, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, and other membranes
      • producing presynaptic neurotoxic activity, cardiotoxicity, myotoxicity, necrosis, hypotension, haemolysis, haemorrhage, plasma leakage (oedemainduction), opiate-like sedative effects and autopharmacological release of histamine and other autacoids.
    • They are anticoagulant, either by hydrolysing plasma or platelet membrane phospholipids, or by interacting with different coagulation factors.
  • Acetylcholinesterases:
    • although found in most elapid venoms, may cause fasciculation.
  • Hyaluronidase:
    • promotes the spread of venom through tissues by increasing permeability but can also contribute to tissue damage.
  • Proteolytic enzymes (metalloproteinases, endopeptidases or hydrolases) and polypetide cytotoxins (“cardiotoxins”):
    • increase vascular permeability causing oedema, blistering, bruising and necrosis at the site of the bite.
  • Venom polypeptide toxins (“neurotoxins”) :
    • Postsynaptic (α) neurotoxins such as α-bungarotoxin and cobrotoxin, consist of 60-62 or 66- 74 amino acids.
    • They bind to acetylcholine receptors at the motor endplate.
    • Presynaptic (β) neurotoxins such as β-bungarotoxin,, and taipoxin, contain 120-140 amino-acids and a phospholipase A subunit.
    • These release acetylcholine at the nerve endings at neuromuscular junctions and then damage the endings, preventing further release of transmitter.

Journal Publications

(have barely even started this search, need to work now so will come back to this..)

Journal Publications - Snake Venom & HIV

April 14, 2022 (From Dr Ariyana Love): (40)

Snake venom is being recently touted as an “anti-HIV” drug, since January 2022. There’s six PLA2s from Snake Venoms patents “against HIV”. These synthetically derived snake venoms are marketed under the guise of being “antiviral” and as a preventive treatment for HIV infection.

  • 2022 – Anti-HIV Activity of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2s: Updates for New Enzymes and Different Virus Strains – International Journal of Molecular Sciences (41)
    • Earlier, it was shown that phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from bee and snake venoms block HIV replication, the effect being independent on catalytic PLA2 activity. However, the antiviral activity of human PLA2s against Lentiviruses depended on catalytic function and was mediated through the destruction of the viral membrane. To clarify the role of phospholipolytic activity in antiviral effects, we analyzed the anti-HIV activity of several snake PLA2s and found that the mechanisms of their antiviral activity were similar to that of mammalian PLA2. Our results indicate that snake PLA2s are capable of inhibiting syncytium formation between chronically HIV-infected cells and healthy CD4-positive cells and block HIV binding to cells.

Dr Ariyana Love continues:

  • The study claims snake venom works to “protect against Lentiviruses” through the “destruction of the viral membrane.” However, this is a lie because we know the Lentiviruses are a lab generated, chimeric mRNA bioweapon containing SARS, MERS, HIV 1-3 and SRV-1 (AIDS). (42)
  • In actuality, snake venom is being used to destroy the human cell membrane not the “viral membrane”, so that nanoparticles can enter the cell and code your genome. This PubMed study proves that HIV is being encoded into people’s cells to produce a new cell line persistently. So snake venom assists mRNA to clone your cells. The J&J patent also mentions “RNA Replicons” which are forever replicating proteins. (43)

Journal Publications - Cobra Venom

Journal Publications on the Therapeutic uses of Cobra Venom

  • 2015 – Histopathological Alterations Induced by Naja naja Crude Venom on Renal, Pulmonary and Intestinal Tissues of Mice Model – British Biotechnology Journal (44)
    • “The findings from the current study revealed that, cobra venom at lethal dose causes multiple organ failure in experimental animal which could be considered among the factors that lead to death.
    • “Results from the histopathological examination showed mainly inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolation in renal tubules, shrinking of glomeruli, raising space between the walls of Bowman’s capsule in renal tissue and alveolar haemorrhage, inflammatory cellular infiltration and edema in pulmonary tissue.”
  • 1923 – The Venom of the Cobra – Science
    • The body apparently does not produce an antitoxin to combat the deadly venom of the cobra in the same way that it fights the poison of the diphtheria germ. Evidence of the persistence of the poison in the tissues could be obtained in some cases a month after the injection. This gives rise to no symptoms, but the animal succumbs to a subminimal additional dose. He also believes that it is probably held in the nerve ends since he could not find any trace of the toxin in the blood.” (45)

Journal Publications - Rattlenake Venom

  • 2010 Effects of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom on hepatic metabolism and oxidative stress J Biochem Mol Toxicol
    • This work aimed to investigate the effects of the Crotalus durissus terrificus(Cdt) venom in the liver. Plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic glutathione S-transferase and catalase presented significant elevation in rats inoculated with 300 μg ⋅ kg(-1) Cdt venom. Liver lipoperoxidation was enormously increased by venom doses of 100, 200, and 300 μg ⋅kg(-1) , whereas glutathione S-transferase was not changed. Perfused livers from rats inoculated with 1500 μg ⋅kg(-1) venom showed increased production of lactate, pyruvate, and ammonia when alanine was the metabolic substrate.” (47)

Journal Publications - Snake Bite Treatment

Antidotes

Antidotes

If it’s snake venom, and if we’re going off “What we know has worked for millions so far”, then the protocols we’ve already researched doesn’t need to be adjusted (we still need a constant reminder to get fresh, quality, un-poisoned food & water). We’ve all recovered from whatever they’ve thrown at us so far using the same things that have helped people with:

  • “Spike-Protein” poisoning (which include COVID symptoms, Long-Haul symptoms, Vax-Illness symptoms)
  • “Graphene-Oxide” poisoning / “Magnetic Phenomenon” / Loss of or Metallic Smell/Taste
  • “Vax-Reactions relating to the Spike Protein” (flu-symptoms & loss of smell/taste)

The standard lot:

Glutathione, NAC, Melatonin, Zinc, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Antihistamines, Heavy Metal Detox, Parasite Cleanse, Greens, Aspirin, Turmeric, Ivermectin, HCQ, Borax, Milk Thistle, COQ10, CDS, among others.

  • Melatonin is a snake-bite inhibitor/reduces inflammation.
  • Milk Thistle for the liver.
  • COQ10 for the heart.
  • Asprin for the clots.
  • Supps because those who have severe covid symptoms have lower levels of those.
  • NAC because it increases our glutithione levels.

*IF* it’s venom, don’t imagine that they are gathering all these serpents to “milk them”. That’s old school. These days, everything is grown in a lab. These days everything is biowarfare & genetic manipulation. These days, they can recreate “extinct” animals in a lab, so creating a venom en masse is a walk in the park. And they’ve been able to do it for decades.

( Not the only one who thinks this, just came across another researcher who’s gone a step further and found evidence of this, she saysOrganoids are being grown a lab to mass produce snake venom. Organoids of snake glands can produce snake venom artificially, without the entire snake.”(54) (55)

I haven’t looked up antidotes yet and I need to do some work now so I’ll come back to this post later.

“Snake venom” antidotes thus far:

  • Melatonin
  • Urotherapy

Local Plants as antidote to snake venom

Local plants as antidote to snake venom

Scientists have recently validated some local plant as herbal medicines for snakebite management. (56)

  • English wild custard apple (Annona senegalensis)
  • Velvet bean or Cowhage (Mucuna pruriens)
  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
  • Plantain (Musa paradiasica).
  • Annona senegalensis (57)
    • Commonly called English wild custard apple, Annona senegalensis belongs to the plant family Annonaceae. The researchers from Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, found that the root extract of Annona senegalensis possesses potent snake venom neutralising capacity and may provide protection against the toxicity posed by the Bitisarietans venom and could be used for therapeutic purposes in case of snakebite.

Melatonin

Melatonin is a snake-bite inhibitor/reduces inflammation.

  • 2022 – Melatonin: highlighting its use as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (59)
    • “Beyond melatonin’s well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions which have proven the efficacy of this molecule in the treatment of diseases/ conditions where excessive free radical-mediated oxidative damage and hyperinflammation are causative factors, the studies summarized herein also support its use as a possible treatment for COVID-19 disease. Melatonin has been proposed as a potential effective inhibitor of the destructive inflammatory consequences of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, an idea supported by observed and predicted improvements in the outcome of patients with this disease.”
  • 2017 – Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy (60)
    • “The combined treatment of antivenom + melatonin would prevent the upsurge of oxidative stress as well as minimize the antivenom load.”
  • 2014 – Melatonin alleviates Echis carinatus venom-induced toxicities by modulating inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress (61)
    • The results demonstrated that melatonin efficiently alleviated EC venom-induced hemorrhage and myonecrosis. It also mitigated the altered levels of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers of blood components in liver and kidney homogenates, and documented renal and hepatoprotective action of melatonin. The histopathology of skin, muscle, liver, and kidney tissues further substantiated the overall protection offered by melatonin against viper bite toxicities.

Natural PLA2 inhibitors (Venom neutralization)

Natural PLA2 inhibitors (Venom neutralization) (62)

  • Ashwaganda
    • Immune support.
    • Aqueous extracts of this plant have been reported to neutralize venom of the Indian speckled cobra
  • Ethanolic seed (extract of Acacia catechu)
    • Has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. (63)
    • Ayurvedic Use: The Acacia catechu is known as Cutch tree, Terra Japonica as well as Black Catechu. In Hindi it is called Khair and Khadira in Sanskrit. This herb was previously known as Kat or Cacho.
      • Used as anti-fungal, natural birth control, swelling in liver / liver sluggishness, blood clotting, gingivitis, management of Leukaemia, Asthma, Bronchitis, relieves diarrhoea, sores, skin afflictions, anti-inflammatory, psoriasis, anaemia, ulcers, leprosy, swelling in spleen, skin disorders, constipation, and pain in the chest. (64)

  • Confirmed protective activity against the lethal action of snake venom with whatever the hell these plants are: Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata
    • Information on medicinal plants was collected from the traditional healers called “Vaidyars”. This survey covers 72 medicinal plants belonging to 53 families that are used for the treatment of snakebite in a traditional way.
    • Potent neutralizing effect against the venom.
    • Publication contains a whole heap of plants like the above-mentioned that I don’t recognize – probably all natural to India. I’m trying to find publications with stuff we already have access to without having to take a course just to figure out what it is! (Although it did mention Doxycycline, in combination with Tetracyclines)
      • Doxycycline is a known COVID-19 treatment (from doctors who read the science, not the pharma-funded fact-checkers and who are not brainwashed or under-duress by corrupt health authorities). (65) (66)

Urotherapy

Urotherapy

Pretty sure you’ll never see a journal publication on this or favourable agreement in the mainstream… but here goes:

Hear me out. I’ve got all the evidence that you have something for free inside of you right now that will take care of anything, any health problem that you might be suffering from and neutralize any damage you may have already received for almost the entire course of the 20th century,” ~ Dr Group (Global Healing Institute)

  • “I can honestly say right now that I think urotherapy is the most overlooked and suppressed medical secret in the history of the world. It is urine therapy. Doctors and researchers have proven that human urine is an enormous source of over 2,500 vital nutrients, vitamins, hormones, enzymes and critical antibodies that cannot be duplicated or derived from any other source as well as up to six unidentified compounds not yet known to man. Urine has also been used to treat cancer, heart disease, allergies, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, asthma, infertility, infections, poisoning and wounds, among others.
  • It can also serve as poison antidote” “In nature, there are snakes, spiders, bees or anything that punctures the skin and injects poison and that this creates a reaction called a cytokine storm.” “Let your body produce an anti-venom.” “It’s been known in India and other parts of the world for thousands of years [that] to survive a poisonous snake bite, you drink your own urine. You put urine under your tongue for 15 seconds and your body produces the anti-venom and it produces the antibodies and you don’t die from the poisonous snake bite,” 

Snake Charmers & Snake Bite using Uropathy stories:

  • Snake Bite, Cobras “… he had a local doctor inject the region of the bite along with drinking his urine and applying it topically.”
  • Snake charmers “Lord Sushrut has mentioned auto­urine as an anti­poisonous substance and a good tonic. Snake­charmers keep a bowlful of urine handy while catching a snake so that he may be able to drink and apply it without loss of time in case of a snake bite. Jain monks say that one who drinks urine regularly for six months becomes immune to snake­ poison. The same is the opinion of many other sadhus.” Manav Mootra by R. M. Patel

Related Videos:

Related Science:

  • [1993] Science: An antidote for all snake bites (67)
  • “Antibodies for antivenins are extracted from the blood of horses after their immune systems have been exposed to harmless doses of a snake venom.”
    • “…a substance in the blood of a poisonous snake which neutralises its own venom. Scientists isolated the substance/protein, called Notechis scutatus inhibitor (NSI), and an Australian laboratory tested the protein against the venom of six other snakes and NSI inhibited the venom of all of them.” “another Team found NSI protected all but rattlesnake venom”
    • “NSI acts against many venoms because all snakes mix their toxic cocktails from phospholipase A2, an enzyme found in cells. NSI inhibits this enzyme. The toxins usually kill by blocking the nerve cells which control the breathing or heartbeat.”

Urokinase

  • “An extract of human urine has shown great promise for the treatment of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, as well as certain deadly diseases caused by the formation of blood clots. He said the extract in urine called urokinase activates substances in the bloodstream that dissolve clots.”
    • [2012] UROKINASE “breaks-up blood clots. It is used to treat large blood clots formed in the lungs”. (68)
    • [2020] Urokinase (Abbokinase) “a thrombolytic drug, sometimes called a “clot-busting” drug. It helps your body produce a substance that dissolves unwanted blood clots. Urokinase is used to treat blood clots in the lungs”. (69)
    • [2019] Urokinase clears blot clots in stroke patients “Swiss surgeons have significantly improved mechanical removal of blood clots in stroke patients by intra-arterial administration of the thromolytic urokinase” (70)

Documents/Downloads

Documents / Downloads

  • Antisnake Venom Properties of Medicinal Plants (PDF) (71)
    • Traditional herbal medicine and plants are used either single or in combination, as antidotes for snake envenomation by about 54 million indigenous people in rural populations in many parts of the world. Plants are reputed to neutralize the action of snake venom, with a plethora of plants claimed to be antidotes for snakebites in folk medicine.
    • Topical application of plant extracts on bitten area, chewing leaves or barks, drinking or injecting extracts, can counteract snake venom activity.
    • (I didn’t recognize the names of any of the plant extracts listed in the table – may have to look up each individually to find out what their “friendly-name” is.)
  • Therapeutic application of natural inhibitors against snake venom phospholipase A2 (PDF) (72)
    • “Naturally available inhibitors occupy an important place in the potential to neutralize the toxic effects caused by snake venom proteins. It has been well recognized for several years that animal sera, some plant and marine extracts, antibiotics from synthetic chemicals are the most potent in neutralizing snake venoms.”
  • Uropathy
    • Uropathy is a Divine Therapy, Urine is a Universal Medicine (PDF)
      • “In case of Snake bite, Scorpion bite, rabid dog bite, rat bite and poisoning from opium or any other substance, Urine is to be given immediately. If the patient cannot pass urine, urine of a healthy person may be given along with putting urine packs on the wound”
    • Uropathy – Shivambu – Urine Therapy – The Golden Secret for Health and Longevity (PDF)

What is this Snake-Venom Theory Anyway?

What is this snake-venom theory...

The documentary “Watch the Water” featuring Dr Bryan Ardis hypothesizes that COVID is not a respiratory virus of any kind, but ‘venom-poisoning’ – a bioweapon created by gain-of-function research with synthesized peptides & proteins from “snake venom”.

Video: AIM - Lises, Propaganda, Snakes & Shills

Video: Dr Been - Is There Snake Venom in SARS-COV-2? (no...)

Links/Refs/Studies Mentioned in Video:

  1. [2017] The role of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis and bacterial infection in adults—A systematic review (73)
  2. Dr. Bryan Ardis Issues Venom Theory Update [Brighteon]
  3. Like Venom Coursing Through the Body: Researchers Identify Mechanism Driving COVID-19 Mortality – Aug 24, 2021
  4. [2021] Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 is associated with the pathobiology leading to COVID-19 mortality (74)
  5. Plasma Membrane
  6. Enzyme related to rattlesnake neurotoxin linked with COVID-19 infection severity – Aug 25, 2021
  7. Structure and Function of Bacterial Cells (page 7)
  8. [2021] Snake venom phospholipases A2 possess a strong virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and block the cell fusion mediated by spike glycoprotein interaction with the ACE2 receptor (75)
  9. [2013] Bee Venom Phospholipase A2, a Good “Chauffeur” for Delivering Tumor Antigen to the MHC I and MHC II Peptide-Loading Compartments of the Dendritic Cells: The Case of NY-ESO-1 (76)
  10. [2000] Nocturnal Melatonin Patterns in Children (77)
  11. [2000] Melatonin Production in Healthy Infants: Evidence for Seasonal Variations (78)
  12. Wiktionary – Virus
  13. [1974] Complete amino acid sequence of phospholipase A2-II isolated from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii venom (79)
  14. Toxin-like peptides in… F1000Research – Comment from Authors “You are perfectly right: it can’t be excluded that the findings aren’t specific to COVID and that might be common to other conditions.”
  15. [2021] Increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in faecal samples prompts for rethinking of SARS-CoV-2 biology and COVID-19 epidemiology (80)
  16. Wikipedia – Conotoxin
  17. [2020] Superantigenic character of an insert unique to SARS-CoV-2 spike supported by skewed TCR repertoire in patients with hyperinflammation (81)
  18. Wikpedia – Metalloproteinase
  19. [2005] The paradox of matrix metalloproteinases in infectious disease (82)

Video: Amandha Vollmer - Watch the Snakes! Discernment, Truthers! (My Fave)

This is my fave video so far. The above video from Dr Been is good for a scientific explanation, and the Substack from Pierre Kory is good for explaining from a covid-ICU-doctor medical comparison.

Amandha on the other hand, debunks it from another angle. Unfortunately I can’t embed her video as she has it on her website.

  • April 12, 2022 – Amandha D Vollmer – Watch the Snakes! Discernment Time Again, Truthers
    • “Did you know you can safely drink venom? Venom is actually not poison. Venom injected into the bloodstream via needle or bite can kill but not in water. Research before reacting and sharing false information. There is no covid, there was no spike in deaths, this was a PLANdemic and a testing pandemic, made up, statistics based on a false test. No one has covid, no one can catch covid, there is no drug for covid, there is no such thing. Let me help you through this sensationalist piece called Watch the Water and break things down for you. Did you know that antibodies are produced to help the body get rid of wastes? So when you are toxic, you make them, to cleanse! So that is all their therapies are doing, grabbing all sorts of wastes. Yes, they are trying to kill a lot of people, but we already know this. We don’t need more muddy waters, we need to focus on the facts: there is no new disease and never was, it is a scam from tip to tail and they are still playing us with it!”
  • April 13, 2022 – Amandha D Vollmer – Aha, the Deeper Snake Agenda Revealed!
    • The false “Watch the Water” video is spreading like wildfire because they are trying to push a new clinical trial for another inoculation/drug and some how trying to prove it is from nature. If it went against their agenda people would have a hard time trying to find this video/documentary but nope you can literally find that BS video anywhere. They had a study in Arizona over a year ago talking about rattle snake venom and how it can be a life saving treatment for convid. It’s planned to the finest details.”

Videos - Dr Bryan Ardis - Interviews & Documentary

Videos

Videos with the Snake-Venom theory

  • April 18, 2022 – The Straight Unswiveled Truth on Snake Venom Claims with Andrew Kaufman, M.D.
    • This video looks at the paper cited by Dr Bryan Ardis as the main evidence that snake venom plays a role in the current plandemic. The paper purports to have found a potential association between venom-like peptides found from various animals and Covid-19. Dr. Kaufman gives an overview of the relevant issues related to the snake venom controversy and gives a critical appraisal of the experiment and conclusions.
  • April 18, 2022 – Dr Jane Ruby – Undiluted Pfizer Vials Full of Snake Venom Proteins for Injection
  • April 16, 2022 – Ivory Hecker – Bing Liu Murder New Details
    • Pittsburgh & Wuhan are sister cities, the Chinese scientists at the Univ. of Pittsburgh had been studying viruses and determined this virus was similar to SARS/MERS, Bing Liu was mysteriously gunned-down May 2nd 2020, he was looking at the cellular basis for the infection of COVID, how & where it attaches, etc. He & his colleagues were making pretty-good progress because 2 days before he was murdered, Univ. of Pittsburgh scientists announced they believe they had found a potential vaccine (bandaid/patch with microneedles, not mRNA, where you actually take the spike from the virus), so they made this big announcement on the last day of April 2020. May 1st they published their study of their findings, and then May 2nd Bing Liu is riddled with bullets. He was at the fore-front of looking at the cellular mechanisms. His name isn’t published on the new study, but it’s interesting. Then, we never hear of the bandaid-associated vaccine ever again.
  • April 14, 2022 – Tori Detroit – NY Times 1975 Publication: —-> CIA using Cobra Venom
  • April 14, 2022 – Tori Detroit – List of CIA Projects WATER POISONING Since 1920
  • Sept 1, 2021 – Snake venom may be tool to fight Covid-19: Study – Reuters
    • “Brazilian researchers have found that a molecule in the venom of a type of snake inhibited coronavirus reproduction in monkey cells, a possible first step toward a drug to combat the virus causing Covid-19.” (84) (85)

Useful links re: Videos

Substack: Pierre Kory MD

April 16, 2022 – Snake Venom and COVID-19 – In some circles an insane amount of attention was paid this week to the theories of a chiropractor previously celebrated for speaking out on the fraudulent Remdesivir saga in the US. Here is my take. – Pierre Kory MD

  • Disagrees with diaphragmatic paralysis as the cause of respiratory failure in COVID as he has known of not one reported or published instance of it in COVID death, and he has cared for hundreds of COVID patients.
  • Disagrees that the most common day of death in the hospital is day 9.
  • Agrees that remdesivir is a fraud with known toxic side effects.
  • Disagrees that “They were banning doctors for using monoclonal antibodies.” – he knows of not one instance of “banning or punished doctors” for using monoclonal antibodies.
    • Says doctors were fired and investigated… for “off-label” prescribing of highly effective repurposed drugs (Ivermectin & HCQ) – not NIH and FDA approved or EUA approved drugs.
    • (Ummm actually they did revoke authorization for two popular Monoclonal Antibody treatments – see this video news press conference – ProjectVeritastimestamp 1:08 – Penny)
  • Agrees there may be some truth in the main theory, “that SARS-CoV2 largely acts as a snake venom and that remdesivir is also made from snake venom”.
    • There is indeed a short sequence of RNA coding for amino acids that make up a part of the receptor binding domain (RBD) portion of the spike protein that is identical to snake venom.
    • Problem with calling COVID-19 snake venom: this protein sequence is just a small part of one protein of the 29 made made by SARS-CoV2 when it replicates.
    • This does NOT mean the virus came from a snake but it does have a little snake venom protein in it. Why it is in there who knows, I suppose I can ask Fauci or Baric or Dazak or the Chinese Military the next time I run into one of them.
  • Disagrees with the Multi-Organ Failure in COVID – Says very few patients die of multi-organ failure in COVID and that the vast majority actually die of single organ failure (respiratory failure), and occasional kidney failure, but admits late stage sepsis (a complication of progressive severe COVID) sometimes causes multi-organ failure but for many/most, they die simply of lung failure.
  • Disagrees with his claims that the virus/venom and/or remdesivir/venom causes ARDS initially.
  • On “Elevated phospholipase A2 enzymes were found in COVID patients”, he said it’s true the enzyme has properties similar to snake venom, but doesn’t agree that all the hospitalized patients who died with remdesivir is equivalent to “remdesivir is snake venom enzyme”
  • Disagrees with the symptoms of snake venom being the same symptoms as COVID – the 19 snake venom symptoms listed in the study mentioned, said they cause cardiovascular dysfunction, muscular paralysis, nausea, blurred vision, and systemic effects such as hemorrhage, and in the diagram from the paper showing damage to the body (coagulation, anticoagulation, tissue damage, sudden shock, muscle damage, dizziness/headache, neuromuscular paralysis and systemic hemorrhage). Pierre said that most of these injurious pathways.. do not happen routinely (or at all) in COVID, and said out of the listed symptoms, he can only endorse hyper coagulation and headache and… nothing else. 
  • And more (read the full substack)

Substacks

Substacks with the Snake-Venom theory

  • April 18, 2022 – The Snake Venom Hypothesis – An Analysis Let’s look at the points raised by Dr. Bryan Ardis (PhD) DC Dr Been
  • April 15, 2022 – About Those Venom Proteins… At least 10 people asked me, too, about the venom proteins. I offer a plausible explanation, what do you think? – James Lyons-Weiler
    • “Dr. Nass says the snake venom stuff is “hooey”. My analysis says yes, let’s move on to more productive pathways. I share two possible explanations for their presences in COVID-19 patients, one of which I favor over the other.”
  • April 14, 2022 – Snakes Poisoning the Well. The rattlesnake enzyme in question is different from a similar-but-not-the-same human enzyme that is a possible culprit in COVID-19 deaths. – Stephanie Brail
    • Snake venom can have as much as 50-100 different proteins/enzymes. ONE enzyme does not equal full-blown snake venom. An enzyme, by the way, is typically made of protein (sometimes enzymes are also made from RNA). Enzymes are simply catalysts that spur chemical reactions in the body. The “rattlesnake enzyme” in question is NOT the same exact enzyme found in humans causing COVID-19 deaths. They are very SIMILAR but not the SAME. The human enzyme is found naturally in the body and normally protects us from bacterial infections. When it is produced too much, it gets out of control and attacks our organ tissue instead of just pathogens.
  • April 13, 2022 – “Watch the Water” with a Grain of Salt. Because snake venom is not the problemMeryl Nass
    • “Dr. Ardis has taught us a lot about Remdesivir.  Let’s not throw the baby out with the bathwater.  But this snake venom stuff is hooey.”
  • April 13, 2022 – Snakes On a Gain…of Function? Sorry…this new “covid is snake venom” theory doesn’t hold water.- Stephanie Brail
    • “I’m open to conspiracy theories…but they need to make some damn sense!!”
  • April 13, 2022 – Dr. Bryan Ardis’s Snake Venom Theory Explained – The Bullet Point Guide to Snake Venom, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Remdesivir as Proposed by Dr. Bryan Ardis – Sage Hana
    • “Proceed down this path with healthy curiosity and skepticism.”
  • April 12, 2022 – What I think of the Bryan Ardis video, “Watch the Water”Steve Kirsch
    • “The video is out. I’ve seen it. A few parts I agree with. For most other parts I’m skeptical. I’ve invited Bryan to meet with my colleagues so we can ask questions.”

Articles

  • April 15, 2022 – Does the Covid-19 Virus contain Genetic Sequences from Snake Venom?DailyExpose.UK
    • “Our findings suggest that 2019-nCoV has most similar genetic information with bat coronavirus and most similar codon usage bias with snake.”
    • “The presence of toxin-like peptides…suggests a possible association between COVID-19 disease and the release in the body of (oligo-)peptides almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals….The presence of these peptides opens new scenarios on the aetiology of the COVID-19 clinical symptoms observed up to now, including neurological manifestations.”
  • April 15, 2022 – From Snakes to Spike Protein to Injections; Some Things to ConsiderDailyExpose.UK
    • “Coronaviruses have genetic material that is highly recombinant, meaning different regions of the virus’s genome can be derived from multiple sources,”
    • “The Spike Protein has numerous “fingerprints” pointing to a manufactured biological weapon, it can be aerosolised and can easily be deployed as a chemical weapon with devastating short term and long-term impacts.
    • “SARS2 was rapidly labelled a respiratory disease. However, my research has revealed that the primary destructive mechanism of SARS2 and the S-Protein is an envenomation.
    • In a 1977 paper, a lectin – a form of venom, a plant-based venom – was attached to, or combined with, a coronavirus.  “You really need to think about glycoproteins, venom and plant-based venom, which are called lectins – you need to think of them like two sides of Velcro and there’s interplay between the two of them.  Ultimately, they act as switches and so when your body needs to understand what it’s dealing with it will have places in the body where lectins and venoms combine. And that sets off all kinds of chain reactions,”
    • There are two homologues, synthetic versions of the venom, in the spike protein. “You can call it a cobra venom but it may not actually be from the cobra snake.  It is from a lab and even then, more importantly, it doesn’t have to actually come from the cobra snake.  That venom could be a perfect match, evolutionary, to a cone snail … it could also come from parasites … There are two venoms that are in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and they are cobra and krait, a coagulant and an anti-coagulant. And you have all kinds of disruptive mechanisms of those two weapons … the venom aspect is just one aspect of this multipurpose tool that makes up the spike,”
    • “There is already loads of data, there is already loads of science, around the fact that the viral component is only one part of this problem.  The bigger problem is the spike protein … They took that highly lethal pathogenic short-term and long-term poison, a venom – a venom-based poison – I cannot be any more clear, they took that and they gave you, if you took the vaccine, a code.  And that code is a trick – a cell that would not normally accept that code was told ‘hey suck this code in and start printing more of this poison.”
  • April 13, 2022 – ‘Watch the Water’ Right on Remdesivir, But Snake Venom Theory Is a Stretchthe Defender
    • While it’s true there is some overlap between the effects of poisonous peptides present in some snake venom and those of SARS-COV2 spike protein, claiming COVID is ultimately derived from snake venom is a poorly substantiated hypothesis.

Interesting…

Things I found along the way that I found intriguing.

Interesting...

Summary of below intriguing things

  • A company named “Cobra Therapeutics” manufacturers AstraZeneca
  • A company named “VenomTech” just announced (April 12, 2022) a collaboration with Charles River Laboratories (who specialize in gene therapy & cell therapy for the Pharmaceutical, Medical device and Biotechnology industries).
  • The WEF publishes an article about synthetic snake venom peptides being synthetically created with RNA/DNA advancements.

Cobra Therapeutics (AstraZeneca)

“Cobra Therapeutics”

Interesting name of a DNA/Gene-therapy Vaccine Manufacturer

  • AstraZeneca vaccine in the UK is manufactured on Oxford Universities behalf by two biotech companies, Oxford BioMedica and Cobra Therapeutics, and filled and finished by Wockhart in Wrexham. (126)
  • Coulter Pharmaceutical, Inc. and Cobra Therapeutics Ltd, the gene therapy subsidiary of ML Laboratories, have entered into a collaboration to jointly develop and commercialise Cobra’s platform gene expression technology.
  • The technology, known as Ubiquitous Chromatin Opening Elements (UCOEs), is a new class of gene expression elements which induce efficient productivity from genes introduced into target cells.
  • UCOE transfected cells yield more predictable, high-level expression of gene products in a sustained fashion.
  • UCOEs have a wide range of potential applications including gene therapy, functional genomics and the manufacture of therapeutic proteins including recombinant antibodies.
  • Cobra Therapeutics is one of Europe’s leading research groups developing novel DNA technologies for applications in human gene therapy, the genomics revolution and manufacturing of biological products.
  • In addition Cobra manufacturers DNA and viral products on a contract basis for several pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies including Glaxo Welcome at its GMP manufacturing facility in Keele, Staffs, which is one of only a small number of such facilities in Europe.
    • Coulter And Cobra Agree Collaboration (127)

VenomTech

“VenomTech”

A company actually named “VenomTech” just did a press-release on April 12, 2022 on medical.net announcing a collaboration with Charles River Laboratories (an American pharmaceutical company specializing in a variety of preclinical and clinical laboratory, gene therapy and cell therapy services for the Pharmaceutical, Medical device and Biotechnology industries):

  • Venomtech is collaborating with Charles River Laboratories, International Inc. to help drug developers explore venom-derived compounds for a wide range of therapeutic targets.
  • This newly formed collaboration will bring together Venomtech’s biology expertise and vast venom-derived peptide library, with Charles River’s drug development and screening knowhow, providing pharmaceutical manufacturers with a one-stop service to explore this unique natural resource.
  • Millions of years of evolution have made venom-derived peptides highly specific, even for many of the hardest-to-hit drug targets.
  • Venomtech’s Targeted-Venom Discovery Array™ (T-VDA™) libraries provide researchers with a straightforward solution to rapidly screen thousands of individual venom fragments, with each array specifically designed to maximise hits for a specific target.
  • Through the new collaboration, Charles River will be able to use this innovative resource – closely supported by Venomtech – to accelerate its clients’ pipelines, addressing difficult therapeutic targets, uncovering new mechanisms of action and minimising off-target effects.
    • Venomtech announces new drug development collaboration with Charles River (128)
    • Charles River Laboratories (129) (130)
    • VenomTech company announces massive library of SNAKE VENOM peptides for pharmaceutical development; “nanocarriers” stabilize snake venom in WATER (131)

World Economic Forum 'DNA/RNA Synthetic Snake Venom Peptides'

In November 2018, the World Economic Forum (WEF) published an article announcing that scientists had come up with a way to artificially synthesize snake venom peptides for drug development purposes. (132)

  • “Advancements in DNA and RNA technology, make it possible to synthesize snake venom as opposed to extracting it from the animal as was previously required”
  • “Traditionally, live venom would be extracted from the animal, then injected into an unsuspecting live rodent or fish to study its impact”
  • “Nowadays, the DNA and RNA of the venom have already been identified, which allows researchers to synthesize its components and test out their theories.”
  • “I like to describe venom as a cluster bomb, its job is to shut down the normal function of the prey and in doing so, it fans out (and) hits several targets, which is a great thing for pharmaceutical development because you have several avenues to explore.”
  • “Because it’s so fast acting, so potent and highly specific to its target, venom has all of the ingredients necessary for making a drug.”
  • ~ Mandë Holford, World Economic Forum’s Young Scientists 

Rockefeller University

  • PhD from Rockefeller University (relevant, extremely relevant, wait for upcoming post) (133)

Killer Snails

  • Co-Founder, Killer Snails (Killer Snails creates immersive games that inspire a love of science.) (134)
    • Killer Snails is developing a new immersive experience called WaterWays. The augmented reality (AR) experience is funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards. Students in grades 3-5 will work in augmented reality (via iPads, Chromebooks, or other tablets) and personalized online science journals to gather data, answer questions, construct models and develop and test hypotheses. In WaterWays, students will get to study organisms like mako sharks and learn more about human impacts on water, and water’s impact on humans. While developing knowledge of the connections between ecology and human health, students will also apply that understanding to come up with solutions to problems like plastic pollution.

A little Agenda 21…

  • 2020 “A little chaos could be just what the SDGs need: here’s the sense behind it(135)
  • Professor Mandë Holford Named A World Economic Forum Sustainability Pioneer “Holford is the only U.S. public university researcher among the Sustainibility Pioneers, a group of entrepreneurs, innovators, and scientists who are tackling challenges to achieving the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.“She also plans to work on a new initiative, 2030STEM, that is focused on addressing the systemic and institutionalized racism that hinders Black and Latinx individuals from entering and excelling in STEM.” (136)
  • She has received several awards including being named a 2020 Sustainability Pioneer and 2015 New Champion Young Scientist by the World Economic Forum. (137)
  • 4 ways science should transform after COVID-19World Economic Forum Agenda, 17 June 2020. (138)

World Economic Forum Videos & Articles (Mande Holford)

  • The therapeutic power of snail venom | Mande Holford – 2015 WEF Video featuring snake, snail, and centipede venom (139) (140)
    • 5 tips for working from home as a woman in STEM. World Economic Forum Agenda, 1 May 2020. (141)
    • Children should be playing more games in the classroom. Here’s why (142)
    • Too hot, too cold. What porridge can tell us about women in science (143)

Ted Talks

  • 2020 TedTalk The power of venom — and how it could one day save your life | Mandë Holford “Venom can kill… or it can cure. Marine chemical biologist Mandë Holford shares her research into animal venom, from killer sea snails to platypuses and slow lorises, and explores its potential to one day treat human diseases like cancer. Someday, snail venom might just save your life.” (144) (145)

Holford Lab

  • On her holfordlab.com website “Injecting flies with snail venom could help us discover molecules for developing new drugs” – 2019 (146)
    • —^^^ now I expect to find “Funded by Bill & Melinda Gates foundation or Rockefeller Foundation” somewhere lol ^^^ — I bet I find a connection now…
  • WHOOMP there it is … (dance break) 𝅘𝅥𝅮𝅘𝅥𝅮𝅘𝅥𝅮 𝅘𝅥𝅱 ♭♭ ♯𝄞 𝄢𝆔𝆕𝅘𝅥𝅘𝅥

  • Holford and her research partner, Li Zhao of The Rockefeller University, received $1.5 million to study immunity and its evolution. – Feb 2022 (147)
    • “Holford and Zhao are leading a project to better understand how immune genes that code for tiny proteins called micropeptides evolve. The team will characterize several poorly understood immune-related micropeptides in humans and fruit flies and will zero in on newly evolved micropeptides to better understand their evolution and their role in the immune system.”

Publications

  • VenomFlow: An automated bioinformatic pipeline for identification of disulfide-rich peptides from venom arsenals. (151)
  • Advancing Discovery of Snail Mucins Function and Application. (152)
  • Diet Diversity in Carnivorous Terebrid Snails Is Tied to the Presence and Absence of a Venom Gland (153)
  • Induced Disassembly of a Virus-Like Particle under Physiological Conditions for Venom Peptide Delivery (154)
  • Diversity and Evolution of Animal Venoms: Neglected Targets, Ecological Interactions, Future Perspectives (155)
  • Venom Diversity and Evolution in the Most Divergent Cone Snail Genus Profundiconus (156)
  • Selective Inhibition of Liver Cancer Cells Using Venom Peptide (157)
  • Breakthroughs in Venom Peptide Screening Methods to Advance Future Drug Discovery (158)
  • Building on Success: A Bright Future for Peptide Therapeutics (159)
  • Using Drosophila behavioral assays to characterize terebrid venom-peptide bioactivity (160)
  • Venoms to the rescue (161)
  • Beach to Bench to Bedside: Marine Invertebrate Biochemical Adaptations and Their Applications in Biotechnology and Biomedicine (162)
  • Peptides 2020: A Clear Therapeutic Vision (163)
  • Are Fireworms Venomous? Evidence for the Convergent Evolution of Toxin Homologs in Three Species of Fireworms (Annelida, Amphinomidae).  (164)
  • Discovery of Peptide Ligands Through Docking and Virtual Screening at Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Homology Models (165)
  • From Mollusks to Medicine: A Venomics Approach for the Discovery and Characterization of Therapeutics from Terebridae Peptide Toxins.  (166)
  • Small Packages, Big Returns: Uncovering the Venom Diversity of Small Invertebrate Conoidean Snails (167)
  • Characterization and Recombinant Expression of Terebrid Venom Peptide from Terebra Guttata (168)
  • Seeing the Woods for the Trees: Understanding Venom Evolution as a Guide for Biodiversity (169)
  • Developing a Dissociative Nanocontainer for Peptide Drug Delivery (170)
  •  Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers. (171)
  • Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails (172)
  • Sample limited characterization of a novel disulfide-rich venom peptide toxin from terebrid marine snail Terebra variegata (173)
  • Macroevolution of Venom Apparatus in Auger Snails (Gastropoda; Conoidea; Terebridae) (174)
  • NMR Structure of VarI, a Novel Bioactive Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snails (175)
  • The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds (176)
  • The Neogastropoda: Evolutionary Innovations of Predatory Marine Snails with Remarkable Pharmacological Potential (177)
  • Holford M, Auer S, Laqua M, Ibanez-Tallon I. Manipulating neuronal circuits with endogenous and recombinant cell-surface tethered modulatorsFrontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 20 October 2009. PMID: 19915728.
  • Holford M, Puillande N, Modica MV, Watkins M, Collins R, Bermingham E, Olivera BM. Correlating Molecular Phylogeny with Venom Apparatus Occurrence in Panamic Auger Snails (Terebridae)PLoS ONE, 5 November 2009. PMID: 19890382.
  • Kholer F, Holford M, Van Tuo D, Thanh HH. Exploring a Largely Unknown Fauna: On the Diversity of Pachychilid Freshwater Gastropods in Vietnam (Caenogastropoda: Cerithioidea)Molluscan Research, 30 September 2009.
  • Holford M, Zhang M, Catlin P, Azam L, Hanuman K, Green G, Watkins BR, Oqnby M, Yoshikami JP, Bulaj G, Olivera BM. Pruning Nature: Biodiversity-Delivered Discovery of Novel Sodium Channel-Blocking Conotoxin from Conus bullatus. Toxicon, 20 November 2008. PMID: 18950653.
  • Holford M, Puillandre N, Terryn Y, Cruaud C, Olivera B, Bouchet P. Evolution of the Toxoglossa Venom Apparatus as Inferred by Molecular Phylogeny of the TerebridaeMolecular Biology and Evolution, 6 October 2008. PMID: 18840603.

References[+]

Penny... on Health
Penny... on Health

DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is not medical science or medical advice. I do not have any medical training aside from my own research and interest in this area. The information I publish is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, disorder, pain, injury, deformity, or physical or mental condition. I just report my own results, understanding & research.