Ways to protect yourself if you haven’t had the jab (or even if you have)

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Update: July 17th 2021 – No longer intend to update this post, read notice:

THIS POST IS MORE LIKE A SCRAPBOOK OF NOTES I’VE TAKEN ON THIS JOURNEY TO UNDERSTANDING. It contains the most amount of notes and explanations, but I started this post before I knew what I know now & it might be a bit ‘too much information’ & not very well organized now that I have a better understanding. I have since created ‘summary’ pages & downloads that might be more preferable for those who are short on time or not as obsessive with needing to know everything.

We are not ‘defenceless’ in the absence of a pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19. Here is a summary of the protocols that are being used to protect and strengthen our immune systems, as well as protocols for a positive diagnosis. This is not a substitute for medical advice, it’s a collection of what is available to us to improve our chances.

If you don’t have time to read right now, please at least download the summaries.

Newest Version: 17th July 2021

See: COVID-19 Phases & Targets – to learn more about symptoms of the various stages (& for downloads)

See: Innate Immune System Optimization for a quick summary on how to strengthen your “First Responders”

Grab a writing pad and a pen or take some notes on your computer to jot down things from my lists below that you can regularly add to or remove from your diet, that will not only boost your immunity & health, but are directly designed to combat the way that SARS-CoV-2 interacts within our cells.

Prevention of Viral entry

Prevention Boost for All & Low-Risk People:

  • Healthy Lifestyle: Nutrition, Sunshine (natural Vitamin D), Exercise, Supplementation, Detox, Hydration, Sleep
  • Eliminate Toxic Loads: Processed foods, smoking, household chemicals, fragrances, chemical detergents.
  • Increase: Antioxidants (oregano, cinnamon, turmeric, acai, grapes, berries, nuts, leafy green vegetables, etc.), Vitamin C foods, Zinc foods, Quercetin Foods, & add a Brazil nut (just one) to your daily intake.
  • Maximize Nutrition & Immune-Boosting Foods:
    1.) Fresh Juices
    2.) Smoothies
    3.) Nourishing Soups
    4.) Hearty Vegetable Slow-cooker meals
    5.) Green Salads
  • And the obvious: Stay away from sick people if possible, and don’t go to work if you are unwell.

Rough-definition of Low/High Risks:

Low-risk = Healthy young people and locations where COVID-19 isn’t prevalent.

High-Risk = Over 45, co-morbidities, people with weaker immune systems, people who work in potentially higher-exposure jobs like ambulances/health professionals, taxi-drivers, aged-care, airports, hotels, hospitals, chemists, health-food shops, supermarkets, and cities with a current outbreak.

Prevention Boost for High-Risk People:

  • Boost Supplementation and Nutrition (see below).
  • Most effective Preventative Protocols: Ivermectin, Zinc + Quercetin + Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Melatonin.
  • Nebulize or Steam Inhalation: If you have been in close contact with someone who may be infected (by anything contagious – not just SARS-CoV-2), when you get home, you can use a nebulizer to try and get it while it’s still in your sinuses before it incubates and moves down to your lungs (see below).


Healthy Inspiration: If you want to see how lifetime diseases get ‘cured’ after juicing fresh fruit and vegetables, please watch “Fat, Sick, and Nearly Dead(01) and “Super Juice Me! (02)

Here are foods (or supplements), and prescription drugs directed at preventing & treating COVID-19 (and other RNA viruses):

Foods to Add:



Luteolin is a dietary molecule that is a furin inhibitor (03) (04) (05) and has the capacity to block the entry of SARS-CoV into host cells: (06)

Not only can it interrupt the furin binding, its also an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger, an inflammatory agent and an immune system modulator as well as being active against several cancers.

Luteolin dietary sources:

  • Oregano
  • Bird Chilli
  • Parsley
  • Onion Leaves (Spring Onion)
  • Celery Seeds
  • Thyme
  • Green peppers
  • Chamomile
  • Juniper Berries



Quercetin protects the ACE-2 receptor, (07) has the capacity to block the entry of SARS-CoV into host cells, (08) (09) and it also works with zinc to prevent RNA replication:(10)

Quercetin dietary sources:

  • Capers
  • Red Onion
  • Shallots
  • Organic Red Apples (Unskinned)
  • Grapes (with the seeds)
  • Berries
  • Cherries
  • Scallions
  • Kale
  • Cherry Tomatoes (Organic = up to 79% more)
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels Sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Green & Yellow Bell Peppers
  • Almonds
  • Pistachios
  • Cooked Asparagus
  • Green Tea
  • Elderberry Tea

Take these with Quercetin if using to protect against COVID-19:

To improve Quercetin absorption: (11) You should take Vitamin C (12) or Bromelain.

To slow down the RNA replication: You should take Quercetin with Zinc for it to be more effective in combatting COVID-19 as it is known that zinc will slow down the replication through inhibition of enzyme RNA polymerase (COVID-19 is an RNA virus and requires the RNA polymerase to replicate). (13)

Quercetin is a Zinc Ionophore – which has the same mechanism of action that hydroxychlorquine (HCQ) has in helping zinc pass the cell wall where it might halt viral replication.

(Note: HCQ is more potent as a zinc transporter so may work better than Quercetin if you are high-risk – but Quercetin is something we can get from our diet or supplements, which is more easily available, especially as some countries are not prescribing HCQ).

Quercetin – initially found to provide broad-spectrum protection against SARS coronavirus in the aftermath of the SARS epidemic that broke out across 26 countries in 2003. Now, some doctors are advocating its use against SARS-CoV-2, in combination with vitamin C.

A pharmacological study, published in March 2021; highlighted that flavonoids such as quercetin was demonstrated to efficiently block the human ACE-2 receptor whereas hesperidin, naringin, and ECGC were found to be efficient towards the viral spike protein. (14)

The FLCCC guide mentions that a mixed flavanoid supplement containing quercetin, green tea catechins and anthrocyanins (from berries) may be preferable to a quercetin supplement alone (15)

Low-Dose Hydroxychloroquine can be prescribed for at-risk patients instead of taking Quercetin as preventative and early-outpatient (people diagnosed with COVID-19 but not needing hospitalization). (16)

Vitamin C

Vitamin C

Vitamin C increases Quercetin absorption, strengthens the immune system, helps your body create antibodies, (17) works synergistically with other vitamins to help them absorb better & much more:

Vitamin C helps with Quercetin absorption which helps protect the ACE-2 receptor. There is evidence that vitamin C and quercetin co-administration exerts a synergistic antiviral action due to overlapping antiviral and immunomodulatory properties and the capacity of ascorbate to recycle quercetin, increasing its efficacy. (18)

Vitamin C is essential for the normal growth and repair of connective tissue, namely, bone, cartilage, blood vessels and skin, and can strengthen the immune system in 20 different ways. (19)

Patients with COVID-19 have a severe deficiency of vitamin C. (20) There is a drop in vitamin C levels in elderly patients which could be a sign as to why they’re more susceptible to COVID. (21)

Vitamin C also helps your body to produce important antibodies: proteins that bind invading microbes to neutralise them.

Vitamin C Dietary Sources: Consuming Vitamin C via fruits and other natural foods gives you the other vitamins & minerals that work synergistically with vitamin C. Most fruits and vegetables contain Vitamin C, but here are some of the richest sources:

  • Guava
  • Mangos
  • Citrus (Oranges/Limes/Lemons)
  • Tomatoes
  • Raw Peas
  • Red & Green Capsicum
  • Hot Green Chilli Pepper
  • Strawberries
  • Papaya
  • Broccoli
  • Pineapple
  • Brussels Sprouts
  • Kiwifruit
  • Cantaloupe
  • Cauliflower
  • Grapefruit
  • Potato (Steamed)

Interesting to note: If you choose to supplement large doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a regular basis, you will need to ensure to increase your level of copper (dietary sources of Copper are mentioned in the “Zinc” section).
(Dietary Vitamin C sources and Temporary supplementary increases at high doses are not going to cause a problem, but since copper is a natural inhibitor of Furin, you don’t want the body to be depleted of this mineral.)

Vitamin CAntioxidant activity, improves Quercetin absorption (22) (23)

There is evidence that vitamin C and quercetin co-administration exerts a synergistic antiviral action due to overlapping antiviral and immunomodulatory properties and the capacity of ascorbate to recycle quercetin, increasing its efficacy. (24)

Vitamin C and Zinc has been associated with an anti-inflammatory effect, which could potentially be useful in managing patients with COVID-19 (25)

Vitamin C supplementation is effective in reducing incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infections and severity of pneumonia in hospitalised elderly patients (26) as well as symptoms of common cold. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamin C has also proven to reduce the risk of acquiring pneumonia, (27)

Dysfunctional epithelial barrier function of the lungs of animals can be restored by vitamin C administration. (28)



Bromelain increases Quercetin absorption, may reduce blood clotting and inflammation and can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 targeting ACE-2, TMPRSS2, & the Spike protein:

Image Source (Modified from YouTube)
HSPG (Heparan Sulfate ProteoGlycan), Furin, TMPRSS2, ACE-2 and Viral Spoke.

Bromelain could reduce any of the risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Its an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation, thus minimizing the risk of arterial thrombosis and embolism, prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack and may also break down cholesterol plaques. Helps in minimizing the risk of disorders of the blood vessels and heart, coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, heart failure and congenital heart disease, as well as arthritis. (29).

It’s also been studied to exert anti-inflammatory effects. (30) and it has shown to increase absorption of antibiotics. (31)

Bromelain can inhibit SARS‐CoV‐2 infection via targeting ACE‐2, TMPRSS2, and SARS‐CoV‐2 S‐protein (32)

Bromelain dietary sources:

  • Pineapple flesh only has trace amounts of Bromelain, but is a good source of Vitamin C, manganese, & thiamin
  • Pineapple juice has a higher concentration of Bromelain (it used to be extracted from the juice but is now extracted from the stem).
  • Pineapple stem (highest source) can be extracted yourself with a juicer and a cheesecloth. (33).
  • Else, purchase a supplement.

Mucosal Immune System – Front-Line Defence

Front-line Defence: Your skin and mucous membranes are your body’s first line of defence. The mucosal immune system lines the passageways throughout our entire bodies (mouth, nose, airways, eyes, digestive system, reproductive tract, & colon) and is your first line of defence against pathogens, bacteria, and viral infections – so it’s important that it’s functioning well as it is a critical physical barrier to outside invaders, especially vital in protecting the lungs.

As SARS-Cov-2 first infects mainly through the nasal passages, and through the mouth and initially infects the upper respiratory tract, its first interactions with the immune system must occur predominantly at the respiratory mucosal surfaces. (34) Being a mucosal targeted virus, SARS-CoV-2 secretory IgA plays an important role in the early defence and viral containment.

Although most clinical studies focus on antibodies and cellular immunity in peripheral blood, mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract play a key role in the early restriction of viral replication and the clearance of SARS-CoV-2. (35)

Diet is an important regulator of the mucosal barrier. Vitamin A and vitamin D regulate the microbial complexity, barrier function, and the mucosal immune responses to ensure intestinal homeostasis. (36) There are few published studies on the precise role of nutrition in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. What is clear is that conditions of nutrient deficiency impair the functioning of the immune system and increase susceptibility to infection. Importantly, both of these consequences can be reversed by correcting the deficiency. (37)

The Mediterranean Diet (Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, Whole Grains, Olive Oil, Omega-3 fatty acids, healthy protein). Human and animal studies demonstrate that dietary changes have rapid effects on the mucosa directly or indirectly through changes in microbiota. Diets mainly consist of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, as well as trace amounts of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. On a human global scale, different regional diets correspond to differences in the composition of the gut microbiota. A Western diet is characterized by excess intake of foods rich in fats, cholesterol, animal proteins, sugars and processed foods. Consequently, these diets promote low Prevotella and higher Bacteroides populations that contribute to low-grade inflammation and several diseases. Conversely, the Mediterranean diet includes greater proportions of fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains, which promote increased abundance of Prevotella and fibre-degrading bacteria that ferment complex carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that positively influence health status. (38)

Along with macronutrients, micronutrients derived from both diet and microbial metabolism such as iron, B vitamins, vitamin A (retinol), and the antioxidant vitamins C and E, are essential for health and regulate microbiome composition, microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions at the mucosal surface. (39)

Iron – deficiency causes reduction in peripheral T cells, (but iron-overload causes dysregulation) (40)

Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. (41)

The most common cause of inflammation of the mucous membranes are viruses, bacteria and fungi, but it can also be caused by Total Toxic Load. (42)

Total Toxic Load—The mucosal barriers can handle a lot, but at a certain point, the total load of toxins and pathogens outweighs the barrier capacity. This could be the accumulation of toxins and chemicals from the environment, from food and water, and from personal care and household products. See the “Avoid Inflammatory Foods & Foods that weaken the Immune System” section below.

Important Vitamins, Minerals, Nutrients:

Vitamin D

Vitamin D

Vitamin D insufficiency is directly related to inflammation and poor mucosal barrier function, and the vitamin D receptor plays a critical role in the mucosal barrier. (43) Vitamin D deficiency enhances susceptibility to infection, (44) (45) (46) has been related to increased risk of thrombosis (blood clotting), and adequate Vitamin D could protect against acute respiratory tract infections, (47) (48) (49) (50) and tend to have considerably less severe symptoms caused by COVID-19. (51)

Vitamin D Sources:

  • Sun-exposure
  • Supplementation
  • Wild-caught Salmon, Herring, Sardines, Cod liver oil, Canned Tuna
  • Egg Yolks (*** From Chickens that have actually had access to the Sun)

The majority of Vitamin D3 is acquired from sun-exposure: The majority of the previtamin D3 is both acquired in the human skin from the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol through cutaneous solar ultraviolet radiation (52) (in other words “the Sun” on your skin), and to a lesser extent through dietary supplementation.

If taking Vitamin D3 as a supplement, you should also consider taking Magnesium, as all enzymes that metabolize Vitamin D seem to require magnesium. (53) (Natural sources of Magnesium are listed here).

Vitamin A (Dietary)

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is known to have beneficial roles in respiratory infections, (54) and is essential in maintaining the mucosal barriers of the innate immune system as it helps maintain structural and functional integrity of mucosal cells in innate barriers (e.g., skin, respiratory tract, etc.) Vitamin A is also important to the normal function of several types of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Vitamin A deficiency compromises the integrity of this first line of defence and also results in reductions in the number and killing activity of NK cells, and it also has a role in inflammatory responses.

However Vitamin A supplementation is not beneficial in those with lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia. (55)

For this reason it is not beneficial to supplement Vitamin A once you have contracted COVID-19, but it is important to ensure your diet contains Vitamin A foods (or supplement to improve your mucosal immunity in the “prevention” stage, however Vitamin A supplementation may cause liver toxicity):

Vitamin A Dietary Sources:

  • Eggs
  • Butter
  • Sweet Potato
  • Pumpkin
  • Carrots
  • Cantaloupe
  • Mango
  • Spinach
  • Broccoli
  • Kale
  • Butternut Squash/Butternut Pumpkin

Probiotics and Fermented Foods

Probiotics and Fermented Foods

Probiotics regulate the functions of the systemic and mucosal immune cells and the intestinal epithelial cells contributing to increased gut health and immune support. When the intestines are in balance, they’re strong and induce protective responses. Probiotics help keep the intestines strong and functioning. (56). There has been some evidence to show that certain probiotics can be used to control viral infections (57). This has led some to suggest that probiotics could be considered as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. (58) (59) (60)

One study from the doctors in the ‘trenches’ during the Italy COVID-19 infection, found that, in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, adjunctive treatment with probiotics was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing respiratory failure – (the benefit was so obvious that they stopped the trial and prescribed it to all patients so as not to put the others at risk). (61)

Probiotic Dietary sources:

  • Yogurt
  • Kefir
  • Tempeh
  • Miso
  • Sauerkraut
  • Kimchi
  • Kombucha

Curcumin & Piperline (Turmeric & Black Pepper)

Curcumin & Piperline (Turmeric & Black Pepper)

Curcumin-Piperline (decrease inflammatory cytokines and lower inflammation):

May suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection by directly modifying spike protein and or ACE2 and inducing host antiviral responses by targeting NRF2 and HMGB1. (62) May ‘hypothetically’ be used to block the viral spike protein from the ACE2 receptor. (63) Awaiting the outcome of a trial in Iran. (64)

Stimulation of specific DNA methylation of ACE2, furin, and interferon genes could help to attenuate contamination susceptibility and disease severity, and vitamin D and curcumin should be considered as epi-drugs and regulators of DNA expression. Curcumin is a potent activator of DNA methyltransferases in viable clinical doses. Curcumin is especially interesting because of its ferritin-lowering effects, given that increased ferritin values in patients suffering from severe SARS-CoV-2 worsen the outcome significantly. (65)

Curcumin & Piperline Dietary sources:

  • Curcumin: Turmeric
  • Curcumin: Curry Powder
  • Curcumin: Mango Ginger
  • Piperine: Black Pepper



Sulforaphane is protective of lungs, potent inhibitor of inflammation, reduces viral load in nose, activates detoxification and antioxidant pathways in the body & more:

Sulforaphane may have both a prophylactic and curative benefit against SARS-CoV-2. It reduces viral load in the nose, increases NK cell production, and displays antiviral activity that impairs viral reproduction & potent inhibitor of inflammation. It can also decrease inflammation for smokers, and has a protective effect on the lungs and increases the bodies ability to detoxify – immediately. (66)

It has enhanced antiviral defence responses. (67) And can also reduce inflammation in vascular cells. (68)

3 clinical trials using broccoli seeds containing Glucoraphanin were found to reduce COVID-19 symptoms – rapidly (in as little as 10 minutes!) (69).

It also induces detoxifying enzymes (14-fold higher than Quercetin), has extremely high bioavailability (20-fold higher than Quercetin & 80-fold higher than Curcumin). (70) (71) and contains heaps of other benefits including cancer, autistic symptoms, anxiety, arthritis, diabetes, anti-aging, & re-growing hair.

Dietary sources of Sulforaphane:

  • Broccoli Sprouts (10 to 100 times the amount of sulforaphane than broccoli)
  • Broccoli (Raw or Steamed from 1 to 3 mins)
  • Raw Kale
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Supplements: you can buy freeze-dried broccoli sprouts from organic health-food stores or as a vitamin supplement: “Sulforaphane glucosinolate” (broccoli seed extract).

If you don’t want to grow broccoli sprouts (which are really easy to grow in mason jars), then at the very least add broccoli or kale or other brassica vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower or brussels sprouts to your shopping list (also proven to be effective) (72) but broccoli sprouts have anywhere from 10 to 100 times the amount of sulforaphane than mature broccoli plants (and both cooked broccoli and commercially frozen broccoli loses much of its health benefits) (73), so maybe chop fresh, raw broccoli into little bits (Sulforaphane is released upon ‘damage’ to the plant), (74) and add it to a fresh salad to get the raw benefits, or one study showed that steaming broccoli from 1-3 minutes increases sulforaphane (75) which may also help with any lurking bacteria concerns.

Increase sulforaphane content:

Growing your own broccoli sprouts and then freezing them actually increases Sulforaphane (76).

Daikon Radish or Mustard Seed powder can increase the sulforaphane content. (77) Apparently frozen broccoli that is thawed with Daikon radish root supported ‘some’ sulforaphane formation even when heated at 125°C for 10 minutes (78). And when powdered brown mustard is added to cooked broccoli, the bioavailability of sulforaphane is over four times greater than that from cooked broccoli ingested alone. (79), and frozen broccoli isn’t so bad if you freeze it yourself correctly – it’s the way the commercial manufacturers blanch it that ruins it’s sulforaphane content.

To increase sulforaphane in supplements, the supplement should also contain Myrosinase, but if it doesn’t, add a tiny sprinkle of mustard seeds, mustard powder or daikon radish to your meal at the same time that you take your sulforaphane supplement.

Selenium (1 Brazil Nut a Day)

Selenium (1 Brazil Nut a Day)

Selenium is a trace element: potent nutritional antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-clotting:

Selenium-deficiency influences several aspects of RNA viruses such as mutations, replication and virulence. (80)

Selenium Dietary Sources: (Selenium benefits work best when levels are met through eating foods with selenium)

  • Brazil Nuts (one single nut provides more than 100% of the daily selenium you need).
  • Salmon, Tuna, Sardines, Halibut
  • Turkey, Chicken, Eggs
  • Cottage Cheese
  • Mushrooms
  • Navy beans
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Grass-fed beef, Beef Liver
  • Oats

Useful to know:

Alpha Lipoic Acid (α-Lipoic Acid)

Alpha Lipoic Acid (α-Lipoic Acid)

Alpha Lipoic Acid: (regulating T cell activity and suppressing NF-κB):

Alpha Lipoic Acid regulates T cell activity, suppresses NF-κB and potentially balances cytokine storm. (84) (85)

Dietary sources of Alpha Lipoic Acid:

  • Spinach
  • Broccoli
  • Tomatoes
  • Brussels Sprouts
  • Peas
  • Potatoes
  • Yams
  • Beets
  • Carrots

Increase Alpha Lipoic Acid efficacy:

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) synergistically increases efficacy of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA).

  • Spirulina
  • Hemp Seeds
  • Oats
  • Barley
  • Evening Primrose Oil
  • Borage Oil (can be toxic)
  • Blackcurrant Oil

Good to know:

GLA is an Omega-6 Fatty Acid of which many of us already have an imbalance of too much Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio.



Zinc is super important for immune cells and prevents some pathogens from being able to latch on to your tissue in your respiratory system, as well as being a Furin Inhibitor in combination with copper (86) (87):

Zinc is an anti-viral mineral. High intracellular concentrations inhibit the replication of RNA type viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Zinc does this by blocking RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the core enzyme of their multiprotein replication and transcription complex that is critical for the copying of viral RNA. (88)

Zinc dietary sources:

  • Legumes: Chickpeas, Lentils, Beans (sprouted increases absorption)
  • Nuts & Seeds: Hemp seeds, Squash & Pumpkin seeds, Sesame seeds, Pine Nuts, Cashews, Sunflower seeds, Pecans, Chia seeds, Flaxseeds, Brazil Nuts, Almonds.

Help Zinc get into your cells:

There is a slight conundrum in that the cells won’t allow much zinc in, so a zinc ionophore is needed to help zinc’s entry into the cells, and once it’s in the cells, its able to block the enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (turn off viral replication). (89)

Zinc incredibly important for immune function. (zinc gluconate, zinc picolinate, or zinc acetate – NOT zinc oxide*).
*zinc oxide is known to be less bioavailable. (don’t forget you can get zinc from your diet making it even more bioavailable)

(Quercetin, HCQ, and Green Tea and many other things are a Zinc ionphore – and will help Zinc to get into the cells, so please use one of these or one of the others in combination with Zinc if taking to prevent COVID-19)

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are impaired smell and taste, fever, cough, sore throat, general weakness, pain as aching limbs, runny nose, and in some cases diarrhoea. Zinc might prevent or reduce those symptoms, (92)

The adverse effects of zinc deficiency on elderly and infants are considered to be higher. (93)

A study in Spain recognized that COVID patients who had higher levels of zinc in their blood were more likely to survive the disease than those who had much lower levels. (94)

It should be mentioned that an excessive amount of zinc may cause impairment of the immune system, so both excessive zinc intake AND zinc deficiency are considered to be harmful to the body. (95) (96) And high-dose zinc or long-term zinc supplementation can cause a copper (trace mineral) deficiency (rare) (97), so consider taking a trace-mineral supplement or adding foods that contain copper (above) when supplementing with zinc.

Zinc is responsible for the activity of more than 300 different enzymes in our body and is vital for our immune system function including maintaining the integrity of our skin and for cells mediating immunity such as neutrophils and killer cells.

Take all of the above regularly to further boost the bioavailability of Zinc. Increased Zinc concentration is required to disrupt viral replication, and it’s suggested that using multiple zinc ionophores would increase that concentration to decrease the viral replication further. (98)

Alternatively, a drug called Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may be prescribed to those in the higher-risk category (although it’s reputation has been damaged by mainstream media because Trump recommended it & they were on an anti-Trump campaign during the elections – so it may not be so easily acquired in Western-countries).

Also useful to know to achieve the right balance: (99)
– high levels of Zinc (supplements of 142 mg/day) reduces Magnesium absorption. (100)
– high levels of Calcium & Iron supplements significantly compromises Zinc levels (in Rats). (101).
– high levels of Zinc might impact Calcium absorption (102)
– high levels of B6 might increase the need for Zinc, (103) and less B6 increases intestinal uptake of zinc, yet B6-deficiency impairs zinc utilization (104)
– Non-heme Iron and Zinc also compete for absorption. (105)
– Copper inhibits Zinc absorption and can lead to a deficiency. Copper and zinc are antagonists, which means they work against one another and compete for binding sites. Excess zinc can lead to a copper deficiency and vice versa. (106)

If taking a zinc supplement at high-doses or for a long period of time, or taking long-term high-dose Vitamin C supplements, include these foods to prevent a copper deficiency:

Copper dietary sources:

  • Organ meats
  • Beans: Chickpeas/Garbanzo beans, Pinto beans, White beans
  • Nuts & seeds: Sunflower, Cashews, Peanuts, Almonds, Poppy seeds
  • Raw Kale (not frozen)
  • Cooked Swiss Chard (Silverbeet)
  • Spinach
  • Potato Skins
  • Shiitake Mushrooms
  • Sundried tomatoes
  • Quinoa
  • Buckwheat
  • Spirulina
  • Fruits: Durian, Avocados, Guavas, Pomegranate, Blackberries, Kiwifruit, Mangoes, Pineapple, Apricots, Bananas
Zn Interventions for SARS-CoV-2 Infections. (A) Zinc ionophores to transport Zn through the cell membrane. (B) Zn inhibit furin, preventing a unique furin cleavage in the Spike (C) Zn may also alter receptor binding and expression of ACE2. (D) Zn directly inhibits RdRp and PLP2, which act as key enzymes for viral replication and assembly of functional viral proteins. Source: Journal of Medical Virology, Volume: 93, Issue: 3, Pages: 1201-1203, First published: 17 September 2020, DOI: (10.1002/jmv.26523) (107) (108)

Vitamin K

Vitamin K

Vitamin K plays an important role in preventing thrombosis & clotting as it helps your body maintain healthy blood vessels and activates enzymes that help protect lung tissues which are two major organs targetted by the virus.

Vitamin K1 = plants
Vitamin K2 = animals & some fermented foods
Vitamin K3 = synthetic

There doesn’t seem to be any good guidelines to distinguish between K1 & K2. I found one resource (109) that saddened me that stated that k2 might be more beneficial for protecting the heart, and preventing & reversing arterial calcifications (the reason why we’d include it as a COVID-19 preventative), but a side-by-side comparison (110) stated that K1 was primarily the one to prevent blood clotting and K2 was primarily good at directing calcium out of the arteries & kidneys and into the right places. This mice study (111) showed that high-dose Vitamin K2 reverses artery hardening by 40%, and stated that only a small amount of K2 would be needed in humans to get a significant protective benefit (and mentioned that K1 worked in the experiment due to the high doses used, but would unlikely be as effective in dietary or supplemental forms as we’d need too much to get the same results). The consensus seems to be that we need to include both forms of vitamin K in our diet.

One possible explanation could be because K1 is not absorbed very well without adding fat. This study (112) estimated that less than 10% of K1 found in plants is actually absorbed, whereas K2 is already eaten with fat because it’s primarily found in meat products. K2 also lingers longer in the body (k1 = hours, k2 = days), which some researchers believe could be another reason why K2 is better absorbed and used by the body. (113) (But is K2 in our body for days because it takes days to digest animals?)

Regardless of this confusion, we’re unlikely to be deficient in Vitamin K if we’re already eating a relatively healthy diet, and both K1 and K2 have many benefits including a reduction in cancer incidence, healthier bones, and in preventing the progression of coronary artery calcification and vascular calcification. (114)

Dietary sources of Vitamin K:

Vitamin K1:

  • Prunes (115) High in Vitamin K1 and also contains other vital benefits: Vitamins A, B2, B3, B6, C, D, E, and potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, calcium, maganese, zinc, roboflavin, niacin, as well as antioxidants, fibre, lubricates stools & is a natural anti-inflammatory.
  • Kale Per 1 cup, raw: (90.8% DV)
  • Mustard Greens
  • Swiss Chard (Silverbeet)
  • Collard Greens Per ½ cup, boiled: (429.2% DV)
  • Spinach Per 1 cup, raw: (161% DV)
  • Broccoli Per 100 grams, raw: (122.2% DV)
  • Brussels Sprouts
  • Green Beans
  • Carrots Per 1 medium carrot: (9% DV)
  • Carrot Juice Per ¾ cup: (30.4% DV)
  • Kiwi Fruit
  • Blueberries Per 50 berries: (14.55% DV)
  • Avocado
  • Green Peas
  • Beet Greens
  • Cashews Per 28.35 grams, raw: (10.7% DV)
  • Parsley
  • Cabbage
  • Turnip Greens Per ½ cup, boiled: (294.1% DV)

Vitamin K2:

  • Natto Per ½ cup: (22.4% DV)
  • Beef liver
  • Chicken (breast, leg, & thigh)
  • Ground beef Per 3 oz: (2.2% DV)
  • Hard & soft cheeses
  • Egg yolk

To improve Vitamin K1 absorption:

Vitamin K is fat-soluble, whilst K2 already includes fat, K1 will absorb better when combined with fat.

  • coconut oil or butter if cooking
  • olive oil, coconut oil, or avocado oil if eating raw

Note: Vitamin A interferes with absorption of vitamin K, and large doses of vitamin K inhibit intestinal absorption of vitamin E. (116).

Vitamin B

Vitamin B

B vitamins could improve breathing, prevent blood clots, reduce inflammation, and decrease mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.

B Vitamins not only helps to build and maintain a healthy immune system but it could potentially prevent or reduce COVID-19 symptoms or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin B modulates immune response by downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation, reducing breathing difficulty and gastrointestinal problems, preventing hypercoagulability, potentially improving outcomes and reducing the length of stay in the hospital for COVID-19 patients. (117)

Vitamin B
Vitamin B deficiency can significantly impair cell and immune system function, and lead to inflammation due to hyperhomocysteinemia. It plays a pivotal role in cell functioning, energy metabolism, and proper immune function. Vitamin B assists in proper activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, improves respiratory function, maintains endothelial integrity, prevents hypercoagulability and can reduce the length of stay in hospital. (118)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) – improves immune system function, reduces risk of cardiovascular disease. Deficiency affects the cardiovascular system and increases inflammation. (119)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – Riboflavin and UV light has been shown to be effective against the MERS-CoV virus, suggesting that it could also be helpful against SARS-CoV-2. Riboflavin together with UV light cause irreversible damage to nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, rendering microbial pathogens unable to replicate. (120)

Vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide, Niacin) – Niacin acts as a building block of NAD and NADP, both vital during chronic systemic inflammation. NAD+ is released during the early stages of inflammation and has immunomodulatory properties, known to decrease the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Recent evidence indicates that targeting IL-6 could help control the inflammatory storm in patients with COVID-19. (121)

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) – Pantothenic acid has a number of functions, including cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering properties, improves wound healing, decreases inflammation and improves mental health. (122)

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, Pyridoxine) – an essential cofactor in various inflammatory pathways with deficiency leading to immune dysregulation. During inflammation, the utilization of PLP increases results in its depletion, suggesting that COVID-19 patients with high inflammation may have deficiency. (123)

Vitamin B6 may help calm cytokine storms and unclog blood clots linked to COVID-19’s lethality. But research on it is lacking. A Hiroshima University professor calls on fellow scientists to study its potential role. (124)

Vitamin B9 (folic acid, folate) – Folate is an essential vitamin for DNA and protein synthesis and in the adaptive immune response. Furin is an enzyme associated with bacterial and viral infections and is a promising target for treatment of infections. Recently, it was noted that folic acid was able to inhibit furin, preventing binding by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, preventing cell entry and virus turnover. Therefore it was suggested that folic acid could be beneficial for the management of COVID-19-associated respiratory disease in the early stages. (125)

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) – Vitamin B12 is essential for red blood cell synthesis, nervous system health, myelin synthesis, cellular growth and the rapid synthesis of DNA. Low levels of B12 result in increased inflammation, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. B12 deficiency can result in disorders of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. A clinical study conducted in Singapore showed that COVID-19 patients who were given vitamin B12 supplements (500 μg), vitamin D (1000 IU) and magnesium had reduced COVID-19 symptom severity and supplements significantly reduced the need for oxygen and intensive care support. (126)

Vitamin B12: early computer modelling and laboratory-based research indicate that vitamin B12 may bind to at least one of the viral proteins and thereby slow down viral replication. Neurological features of COVID-19 and vitamin B12 deficiency overlap. (127)

Vitamin B Dietary Sources:

  • Wild Salmon, Trout
  • Milk or Oat Milk, Yogurt
  • Beef, Chicken, Turkey, Cooked (not raw) Eggs, Organ Meats especially Liver
  • Chickpeas, Black Beans, Edamame (green soybeans), Kidney Beans, Pinto Beans
  • Dark Leafy Greens (like Spinach)
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Whole Grains like Brown Rice & Barley
  • Oranges, Sweet Potatoes, Carrots
  • Bananas, Avocado
  • Lentils
  • Almonds, Sunflower Seeds
  • Green Peas

Vitamin E

Vitamin E

Even people with relatively poor diets are unlikely to be deficient in Vitamin E, as it’s found in nearly all foods to some extent. however, Vitamin E widens the blood vessels and helps to keep clots from forming. As well as high mortality rates in COVID-19 have been seen in patients with cardiovascular diseases. There’s no reasons to get your levels checked, but it is recommended that you ensure higher levels of Vitamin E in your diets during this time, especially in the elderly or those with cardiovascular concerns.

Vitamin E and selenium both act through anti-oxidant pathways to increase the number of T cells, enhance mitogenic lymphocyte responses, increase IL-2 cytokine secretion, enhances NK cell activity, and, decreases the risk of infection, and Selenium and vitamin E supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance to respiratory infections. (128)

Dietary Sources of Vitamin E:

  • Fats: Butter, Olive Oil, Almond Oil
  • Vegetables: Beet Greens, Broccoli, Red Sweet Pepper, Spinach, Silverbeet, Asparagus, Butternut Squash, Mustard Greens, Collard Greens, Turnip Greens,
  • Fruit & Berries: Blackberries, Black Currants, Cranberries, Raspberries, Kiwifruit, Mango, Avocado, Apricots
  • Nuts & Seeds: Brazil Nuts, Sunflower Seeds, Pumpkin Seeds, Pine Nuts, Cashews, Almonds, Pecans, Pistachios, Hazelnuts, Peanuts

To improve Vitamin E absorption:

  • Vitamin E requires fat in the digestive tract to be absorbed, which means the Vitamin E in butter is Vitamin E that is easily absorbed into the system, as well as Avocado Oil, Almond Oil, Coconut Oil, and Olive Oil.



Magnesium deficiency is associated with decreased immune cell activity and increased inflammation, including of IL-6, central to the pathology of the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.

All of the enzymes that metabolize vitamin D seem to require magnesium, which acts as a cofactor in the enzymatic reactions in the liver and kidneys. Deficiency in either of these nutrients is reported to be associated with various disorders, such as skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. It is therefore essential to ensure that the recommended amount of magnesium is consumed to obtain the optimal benefits of vitamin D. (129)

Magnesium activates Vitamin D in the body (and vitamin D helps strengthen the immune system). Magnesium improves the white blood cells’ ability to seek out and destroy germs. Low magnesium can lead to a cytokine storm, during which the body attacks its own cells and tissues instead of fighting off infection. This creates inflammation, cell and tissue damage, narrowed blood vessels, and blood clots. During this COVID-19 pandemic, vitamin D insufficiency has been seen in over 80 percent of patients with severe cases of the coronavirus. (130)

Basic and clinical researches have demonstrated that magnesium sulfate is beneficial for the treatment of lung-related diseases, such as asthma and pneumonia through its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to prevent or treat a variety of disorders or diseases related to respiratory system, reproductive system, nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system as well as kidney injury, diabetes and cancer. (131)

Natural Sources of Magnesium:

  • Yogurt
  • Milk
  • Carrots
  • Spinach
  • Potato (baked with Skin)
  • Black Beans
  • Edamame
  • Kidney Beans
  • Cashews
  • Almonds
  • Chia Seeds
  • Peanuts
  • Avocado
  • Bananas
  • Raisins
  • Apple
  • Oats
  • Rice (Brown)
  • Salmon
  • Halibut
  • Bath or Foot Spa: Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate)

Good to know:

  • Calcium supplementation can have negative effects on magnesium levels, and magnesium supplementation actually improves the body’s use of calcium. (Researchers support a 1:1 calcium to magnesium ratio for bone support)
  • Lack of magnesium magnifies the body’s stress-reaction (fight or flight mode), can negatively impact the nervous system, and as such increase anxiety, depression, and personality changes.
  • Sugar, Caffeine, Alcohol & a lot of prescription drugs causes the body to release extra magnesium out of the kidneys.
  • High levels of Zinc (supplements of 142 mg/day) reduces Magnesium absorption. (132)



MelatoninAntioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect by preventing release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (133) NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to have a close connection to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Melatonin also reduces oxidative lung injury and inflammatory cell recruitment during viral infections. Melatonin is not virucidal but has indirect antiviral actions due to its anti-inflammation, antioxidation and immune enhancing features. (134)

Melatonin has been shown to inhibit NFkB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. (135)

Highest Dietary Sources of Melatonin:

  • Milk: Human Milk (night milking), Colostrum Powder
  • Cereals: Rice (Black & Red), Corn, Wheat, Barley, Oats
  • Fruit: Grapes (skin), Cherries (tart), Strawberries
  • Vegetables: Tomatoes, Capsicum
  • Mushrooms: Basidiomycota (Lactarius deliciosus), Basidiomycota (Boletus edulis), Agaricus bisporus
  • Legumes: SoyBeans (germinated), Mungbeans (germinated)
  • Seeds: Mustard Seeds (White & Black)
  • Nuts: Pistachio (HIGHEST!), Walnuts
  • Beverages: Coffee (Roasted), Cacao, Balsamic Vinegars (however- caffeine is bad for viruses (see avoid section))
  • Medical Herbs: Huang-qin (Scutellaria biacalensis), St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
  • Edible Oils: Linseed, Virgin Soybean, Extra Virgin Olive Oil
  • Animals: Eggs, Salmon

Glutathione (GSH)

Glutathione (GSH)

Glutathione (GSH) is essential for healthy lungs/respiratory system, antioxidant defence, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events. (136) GSH is in every cell and although we’re unlikely to be deficient (as our bodies can produce it), those who are high-risk that have chronic or autoimmune conditions are deficient in a lot of vital nutrients so are likely to be depleted of this too (Low glutathione levels, low cg syndrome or low GSH levels are associated with over 90 diseases or conditions (137) and is a major biological player when it comes to dealing with viral infections), or they may have a high toxic load (GSH removes toxins from the body), and it’s the most important antioxidant as it resides within the cell, and plays a crucial role in immune function, including promoting T-cell function.

Glutathione is probably the most important cellular defense that allows the body to prevent and fight infections and disease. Glutathione is the natural defense of every cell in our bodies working hand in hand and dependent on a plentiful supply of selenium for its existence and function. Glutathione, the most important antioxidant in the body, is that place where sulfur and selenium meet up to protect us from cancer as well as viral infections. (138)

Dietary sources that help the body produce GSH are:

  • Brassica vegetables Turnip, Radish, Kale, Cabbage, Bok Choy, Collard greens, Watercress, Arugula/Rocket, Mustard Greens, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts
  • Polyphenol-rich vegetables: Artichokes, Carrots, Olives, Red & Yellow Onions, Potatoes, Red Lettuce, Asparagus, Endive, Spinach, Shallots, Spirulina
  • Polyphenol-rich fruits: Blueberries, Blackcurrants, Coconuts, Plums, Cherries, Blackberries, Strawberries, Raspberries, Nectarines, Apples, Grapes, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Lemons, Oranges, Pomegranate
  • Polyphenol-rich Herbs and spices: Cloves, Thyme, Rosemary, Spearmint, Peppermint, Celery Seed, Sage, Sweet Basil, Curry, Ginger, Capers
  • Omega-3 fatty acid rich-foods: Mackerel, Salmon, Cod Liver Oil, Herring, Sardines, Anchovies, Flax seeds, Chia seeds, Walnuts, Soybeans
  • Raw, Sulfur-rich Foods: Garlic, Onions, Asparagus, Artichokes, Bean sprouts, Pineapple, Spinach, Watermelon
  • Lean protein sources Chicken, Turkey
  • Green Tea
  • Bromelain: Pineapple Stem & Juice
  • Yogurt
  • Eggs
  • Oats
  • Milk Thistle
  • B Vitamins (B122, Folate, B6)
  • α-Lipoic Acid (helps restore GSH levels if immune system is depleted)
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E

Other sources to increase or modulate Glutathione:

More research needed

More research needed:

How do I add all of these into my diet?

A healthy diet will automatically include these things without needing to take a bunch of pills as a side-dish to attempt to counteract unhealthy diets (not to dismiss supplementation – but making healthier choices is not only cheaper than buying separate supplements for everything, but has the added benefit of working synergistically with other vitamins & minerals, contains added micro-nutrients and trace elements that a pill doesn’t, and… healthy diet = healthier cells = cellular regeneration miracles!) Don’t dismiss supplements in the interim, but “don’t dismiss healthy food as a nutritious and more bio-available alternative to pill-popping” when you might even heal all your ailments as a ‘side-effect’. Don’t get suckered-in by good-marketing.

If you eat healthy, most of these immune-boosting foods will automatically be part of your life, and may have the added benefit of healing some of your existing issues.

“Grow your own groceries” and you can save even more money (eventually), which will massively boost the nutritional content (you’ll eat with the seasons, and you’ll pick fresh), and no more chemicals to worry about, and no more food-waste.

Foods that weaken & inflame the Immune System:

  • Vegetable Oils including Corn Oil, Sunflower Oil, Soy Oil, and Peanut Oil (159) Canola Oil, Soybean Oil, “Vegetable” oil, Safflower Oil, Cottonseed Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Margarine, Shortening, and fake butter substitutes.
    They have High concentration of Omega-6 fatty acids, and these oils are processed in unnatural ways. During manufacturing they add additives and chemicals that keep them from spoiling too quickly, and many come from genetically-modified food sources. Body converts them into another fatty acid called arachidonic acid which is a building block for molecules that can promote inflammation. Substitute with coconut oil, olive oil, avocado oil, ghee, and grass-fed butter.
  • Sugar weakens the immune system and is the perfect weapon for pathogens and cancer, and Artificial Sweetener enhances levels of inflammatory biomarkers & suppresses the immune system.
  • White Bread, cookies, cakes, rolls, etc that are made with white flour all contribute to inflammation. Also likely to contain additives if store-bought in packaging that also contributes to a weaker immune system.
  • Pasta (substitute with vegetable pasta (zucchini, carrots) or other healthy-choice pastas in same section – chick pea pasta, etc.)
  • Soda and Energy Drinks are linked to many health issues from cardiometabolic health, to diabetes and cancer. Soda is also loaded with either sugar or artificial sweeteners, and contains artificial colours and other ingredients that also effect the gastrointestinal lining. Carbonated drinks contain phosphorous which can also lead to depletion of calcium and calcium plays an essential role in our immunity cells. (160)
  • Potato Chips – immune system nightmare. Fried in vegetable oil, high in salt, and contribute to immune deficiencies.
  • Unhealthy Fast Food – those that are high in sugar, high in salt, cooked in vegetable oil, fried, or have added unnatural seasonings.
  • Alcohol – Beer & cocktails especially. Excessive alcohol (more than a glass a day for women, 2 glasses for men) interferes with normal functioning of all aspects of the adaptive immune response. Increases cortisol, blood sugar, and insulin which all negatively affect the immune system. Additionally, it can influence the mucosal immune system – which is a critical first-line defence against SARS-CoV-2. (161) See also: If you must drink alcohol…
  • Hot Dogs, Bacon, Salami and other processed meats contain harmful chemicals that form during the manufacturing process that are usually high in salt, nitrates and other additives that can lead to oxidative stress.
  • Packaged Cereal. High in sugar and other additives that negatively impact your immune system. Substitute for Fresh Juice, Smoothies, Oats, Muesli, Granola, Nuts & Seeds.
  • Processed Canned Goods – like canned pasta – are usually filled with salt, sugar and other additives.
  • Cigarette Smoke Exposure is strongly associated with adverse outcomes from COVID-19 (162)
  • Avoid Caffeine if infected by a virus. Caffeine increases arginine availability. (163) Arginine is part of the viral reproduction process for coronavirus. Lysine (already in use as an antiviral for herpes viruses) appears to work in part by interfering with arginine uptake and metabolism. (164)


  • Red Meat – Moderate amounts are ok but high amounts change your body’s overall pH load to become acidic and when that happens, minerals like magnesium, calcium, potassium and bicarbonate become low. Red meat is also rich in omega-6 fatty acids, so is double-inflammatory.

    If you must eat Red Meat, choose grass-fed, and even better if you can tolerate organ meats (from healthy grass-fed animals).

    Think more in terms of how the Japanese serve it – don’t make it the ‘main’ food on the plate – use it more as a ‘side-dish’ to the other vegetables.

  • Dairy. You will want to limit most dairy products if you are trying to build your immune system because it is a known trigger for people with auto-immune diseases. People who limit or eliminate dairy and replace with healthier choices generally have more energy, less pain and inflammation.

    Also, to potentially sound hypocritical… pure colostrum powder shows that it is beneficial to the immune system, and that is made from the (2nd-3rd-or-4th) milking of cows shortly after they give birth (after the calves are fed), and natural yogurt that has added probiotics is also shown to be beneficial to the immune system.


  • At least 30 minutes of daily sun exposure (Natural Vitamin D)
    (Note: you can get your Vitamin D levels checked either by online order on Amazon, etc, buy a self-test, or through your doctor or nutritionist).
  • Daily movement (to help expel toxins in the body, improve blood-flow, raise oxygen levels in your cells & reduce risk of morbidity) (165) (166) Exercise, Strength-Training, Massage, Yoga
  • Home Ventilation – open windows, invest in some form of air-filtration – even getting some indoor plants that also cleans the air – anything to improve both the air-flow and the air-quality inside.
  • Avoid Stress & Fear – maybe easier for some than others, but stress shuts down the immune system and switches gears to ‘fight or flight’ mode. Seek solutions & forgiveness for long-standing issues, play music that makes you feel good, take some downtime away from your main stressors & negative triggers, make the choice to place your mental health as high on your priority list as your physical health. (167) (168)
  • InfraRed Saunas – Especially if you have had a lifetime of antibiotics and are not prone to fever – there are some infections in the body that can only be killed with heat and if you are someone that doesn’t naturally generate a fever, your body may be experiencing disruption already. There are a tonne of benefits to infrared saunas that I hope to remember to reference here.
    If that is completely out of the question for your situation, red-light therapy is a cheap (albeit far less-effective) option that you can purchase on ebay/amazon, etc.
    There is also a tonne of research regarding thermal therapy (aka hyperthermia therapy or heat-therapy) as a cancer treatment. (169) And there may be a link between these bacteria that we have been unable to ‘fight-with-fever’ and Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, A.L.S, and M.S. (170)
  • Hot & Cold Contrast Showers – (3 mins hot, 30 secs cold, 3 times) increases level & activity of NK cells, improves circulatory systems, flushes out lymphatic system, & stimulates immune cells throughout body. (171) (172)
  • EMF Protection – could write a book on all the ways and share thousands of references, but if you can limit your EMF exposure – unplug the router at night, live away from towers, reduce your screen-time, get a grounding mat/sheets, Blue-light blockers, or just do what you can to limit your exposure, you will be doing your body and immune system a big favour.
  • Deep, Restful Sleep (7-9 Hrs)- Sleep-Deprivation reduces NK cell number & function. (173) During sleep, your immune system releases proteins called cytokines, some of which help promote sleep. Certain cytokines need to increase when you have an infection or inflammation, or when you’re under stress. Sleep deprivation may decrease production of these protective cytokines. In addition, infection-fighting antibodies and cells are reduced during periods when you don’t get enough sleep. (174) This one is on my wish-list as someone who is an insomniac, but most of the bodies healing, repairing, detoxing, “fixing stuff”, happens during sleep, and it’s also important not to eat before you sleep – and more important the older you get. It’s like 2 hours for the young and then increases up to 5-6 hours as you get older (this is going by memory) – I think the premise is matched to the speed of your digestion. So don’t eat before you sleep for best health benefits. Ideally we function better by sleeping when it gets dark but electricity and modern lifestyle has ruined our circadian rhythm.
  • Grow herbs in your window sill, balcony or backyard, and you’ll have freshly-grown immune-support at your fingertips (more potency if freshly-picked and organic). All herbs contain some sort of healthy benefit with most of them containing antibacterial, antiviral, or anti-fungal properties that help fight off infections or help eliminate toxins. Some good herbs to grow and use regularly for COVID-19 would be: Oregano, Holy Basil, Thyme, Sage, Garlic, and Ginger.
  • Drink Green Tea – it contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which exhibits antiviral activities against various viruses = ESPECIALLY positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses! (175)
  • Nature – Forests, Natural Oil Aroma (e.g. Eucalyptus, Pine), Earthing – evergreen trees give off aromatic compounds (phytoncides) that increase NK cells (176)
  • Antioxidants – Improves different immune functions, important protective role in infections caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites (177) Artichokes, Berries, Pecans, Red Cabbage, Beans, Red Grapes, Spinach, Beets, Kale, Orange Vegetables, Oregano, Cinnamon, Turmeric, Acai, Grapes, Berries, Nuts, Leafy green vegetables, Vitamin C, Co-Q10.
  • Ayurvedic herbs which may be helpful as antiviral, antioxidant immunity modulator: Haldi-Cucuma longa-Turmeric, Sahajan-Morninga oleifera-Drumstick, Saunth-Zibgiber officinale-Dry ginger, Marich-Piper nigrum-Black pepper, Pippali-Piper longum, Loung-Syzygium aromaticum-clove, Tulsi-Ocimum tenuiflorum, Kutki-Picrorhiza kurroa, Chirayata-Swertica chirata, Nimbu-Citrus limon-lemon, Giloy-Tinospora cordifolia, Yesthi madhu-Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gojivaha-Onosma bracteatum, Dalchini-Cinnamomum verum, Ashwagandha-Withania somnifera, Amla-Phyllanthus emblica-gooseberry, Dhaniya-Coriandrum sativum, Lahasvan-Allium sativum–Garlic, Ajwayan-Trachyspermum ammi-bishops weed or carom seeds, Pudina-Mentha arvensis– Mint, Banfasha-Viola odorata Linn-wild violet/sweet violet, Shirish-Albizia lebbeck, Kantkari-Solanum virginianum-wild eggplant, Vasa-Justicia adhatoda-malabar nut Tej patra-Cinnamomum tamala-Indian bay leaf, Nim Patra-Azadirachta indica (leaves), Kalmegha-Andrographis paniculata. (178)

Prescription Drugs

Ivermectin (IVM):

Ivermectin, a drug for eradicating worms, has recently been shown to decrease the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells by a factor of 5000, with just one application. Ivermectin is inexpensive and has a high safety profile.

Numerous, controlled clinical trials from multiple centres and countries worldwide are reporting consistent, large improvements in COVID-19 patient outcomes when treated with ivermectin. (179)

1) Ivermectin inhibits the replication of many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and others;
2) Ivermectin has potent anti-inflammatory properties with multiple mechanisms of inhibition;
3) Ivermectin diminishes viral load and protects against organ damage in animal models;
4) Ivermectin prevents transmission of COVID-19 when taken either pre- or post-exposure;
5) Ivermectin hastens recovery and decreases hospitalization and mortality in patients with COVID-19;
6) Ivermectin leads to far lower case-fatality rates in regions with widespread use.

I really hope I can create a video on all the studies because I want to tell you about them all – it’s incredible and has became my obsession! Don’t get me started when you pick up the phone and call me, because if you ask me about it, I won’t shut up for an hour explaining everything I’ve learned about it :) and some believe the entire pandemic could be over in a few weeks if they knew about Ivermectin.

Please make sure you make it a priority to learn about it – I would start with this video: compelling summary of the studies presented to the US Senate. I also recommend having Ivermectin on-hand in case you or a loved-one contracts COVID-19, or to use as a preventative if you are in a high-risk position (taxi drivers, health-care providers, caregivers of high-risk patients, people who use public transportation, first responders, etc.), or if you are a high-risk individual (aged over 45 with co-morbidities, morbid obesity, long-term care facility, etc.).

Before using, please check for potential drug interactions (such as cyclosporin, tacrolimus, anti-retroviral drugs, and certain anti-fungal drugs) at Ivermectin Drug Interactions – Drugs.com (180)

See also:


N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (promote glutathione in cells, increase immune cells): (190) (191)

Neutralizes harmful bodily stressors and promotes production of glutathione in cells. It may also help to reduce oxidative and inflammatory damage in pneumonia patients.

NAC appears to support the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) under conditions when the demand for GSH is increased, during oxidative stress. GSH is a critical molecule in resisting oxidative stress with the enzyme glutathione reductase (192)

EGCG Capsules (or Green Tea)

EGCG Capsules (or Green Tea)

As an alternative for those who are not drinking Green Tea daily. (Green Tea is mentioned all over this article, I’m working on something else at the moment, but will update this section with the references tomorrow – in meantime, drink Green Tea, or buy EGCG)

The EGCG can latch on to the zinc ion and carry it into the cell cytoplasm, where the zinc inhibits a viral protein called replicase. Replicase (or RdRp) makes copies of viral RNA. Both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 have a replicase protein. The replicase protein complex (made up of several proteins) is blocked by zinc ions, preventing the virus from making copies of its RNA. This stops the virus from multiplying.

EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and other Catechins are able to inhibit the virus directly, even without zinc. The various forms of catechin are able to bind to different viral proteins, to prevent them from working, thereby stopping the infection of cells or the replication of the virus within infected cells.

(193) (194)

Low-Dose Aspirin

Low-Dose Aspirin

Aspirin exerts not only antithrombotic, but also analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions. (195)
Its anti-viral activity is not clearly understood, but seems to limit viral replication by blocking prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in macrophages and upregulate type I interferon generation. (196)

Olive Leaf Extract

Olive Leaf Extract

The leaves of Olive trees (Olea europea) contain a substance called elenoic acid which has been identified as a powerful inhibitor of a wide range of viruses in laboratory tests. including influenza, herpes, polio and coxsackie viruses. These substances block the production of enzymes that allow viruses to replicate. (197) (198)

Olive leaf extract (with the calcium elenolate active compound) has been shown to reduce severity and duration of upper respiratory infections. (199)

Oregano Oil

Oregano Oil

Oregano is a powerful antiviral agent. Medicinal grade oregano is distilled to extract the essential oil and preserve its healing compounds; in fact, it takes over 1,000 pounds of wild oregano to produce just 1 pound of oregano oil! Oregano oil benefits are proving to be superior to some antibiotics, without the harmful side effects. That’s because oregano contains two powerful compounds, carvacrol and thymol, that have powerful antibacterial and antifungal properties. (200)

** Note, I haven’t researched Oregano ‘Oil’ specific to COVID yet. This is from a paper that says it may be useful but they didn’t specify how it could be used for COVID-19 symptoms or as a viral inhibitor.

** Note also that ‘Oregano’ also comes under the same research as “Luteolin” which I’ve done quite a lot of research on. so I have no reason to believe that a more powerful form of Oregano would be even more potent against SARS-Cov-2. Luteolin is a potent antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2.

Nigella Sativa (Black Seed Oil, Black Cumin Seed)

Nigella Sativa (Black Seed Oil, Black Cumin Seed)

Nigella Sativa – The components of this plant are known for its intense immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant benefits in obstructive respiratory disorders. (201) Structure of Clinical Trial for COVID-19. (202) Trial complete but analysis not yet published. (203).

An “in-silico” study concluded that pathways undertaken by N. sativa bioactive constituents were similar to the pathways followed in SARS-COV-2 pathology, like renin-angiotensin system, kidney functions, regulation of blood circulation, blood vessel diameter, etc. Also, in docking studies, the constituents of N. sativa, α-hederin, Thymohydroquinone and Thymoquinone were observed to be efficiently binding to ACE2. Also, the bioactive phytoconstituents are involved in molecular pathways like HIF1, VEGF, IL-17, AGE-RAGE, chemokine and calcium signaling pathways which can be majorly helpful in combating hypoxia and inflammation caused due to compromised immune system and oxidative stress. (204)

Nigella Sativa plus Zinc: Having a range of bioactive components such as thymoquinone and nigellimine, black seed might offer a number of benefits to treat COVID-19 such as (i) blocking the entry of the virus into pneumocytes (block the SARS-CoV-2 entry via ACE2) and (ii) providing ionophore for enhanced uptake of Zn2+ which in turn can enhance host immune response against SARS-CoV-2 as well as inhibit its replication by blocking the viral RdRp. (205)


The dosage recommendations are adjusted as new research comes to light throughout the pandemic. Over 70 clinical trials are in play for supplements for COVID-19. One source I trust for up-to-date information about dosages is the team who is keeping on top of all the latest research and frontline-results – FLCCC. So I suggest getting the latest dosage-recommendations from their website. https://covid19criticalcare.com/covid-19-protocols/

(Every time I add the dosages on my blog, they change the recommendations again based on what is most effective from looking at the latest research so linking directly to them will be easier and more up-to-date & accurate). (206)

If you get COVID-19:

All of the above (everything in the Preventative section) except in higher doses (read latest up-to-date protocols for recommended dosages, as research continues to come in as trials are completed).



Point your doctor to this study which has reviewed all the effective treatments available for early COVID-19 (57 authors!). They are opposed to the ‘wait and see’ approach (sending patients home to quarantine without any treatment, monitoring, or guidance) and believe that if they can get this information out to doctors, that many patients can avoid ever needing to be hospitalized. (208) Another good resource is the Hospital Treatment Protocol by FLCCC. (209)

Nutshell of first study includes: (as at 28th November, 2020)

  • 1). Fresh air circulation.
  • 2). Zinc. Vit D, Vit C. Quercetin.
  • 3.) IV bamlanivimab
  • 4.) Hydroxychloroquine
  • 5.) Ivermectin
  • 6.) Favipiravir
  • 7.) Azithromycin
  • 8.) Antibody therapy: bamlanivimab, casirivimab, imdevimab
  • 9.) Corticosteroids: budesonide.
  • 10.) Colchicine
  • 11.) Antiplatelet agents and antithrombotics: (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, dabigatran) heparin, anticoagulants
  • 12.) Oxygen monitoring

Nutshell of Hospital protocol includes: (as at April 28, 2021)

  • Methylprednisolone (Upon oxygen requirement or abnormal chest x-ray or refractory illness/cytokine storm)
  • Ascorbic Acid (Hospital, ICU, & mega-doses if in ICU & not improving)
  • Thiamine (ICU Patients)
  • Heparin (Upon admission)
  • Ivermectin (Upon admission – Hospital or ICU)
  • Fluvoxamine (Hospitalized Patients)
  • Cyproheptadine (Specific circumstances relating to patients meds & existing injuries)
  • Anti-Androgen Therapy (Hospitalized Patients – Men only)
  • Vitamin D (Hospitalized Patients)
  • Atorvastatin (ICU Patients)
  • Melatonin (Hospitalized Patients)
  • Zinc (Hospitalized Patients)
  • Famotidine (Hospitalized Patients)
  • Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (Patients refractory to pulse dose steroids)

Vitamins & Supplements

Vitamins & Supplements

Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc and Quercetin are nutrients that you need regardless whether there is a pandemic or not. The difference is in the dosages: being higher for treatment as opposed to maintenance or preventive.

Again, I’m going to recommend the FLCCC for up-to-date guidance on dosages. This link will point you to the hospitalized & outpatient guidance of dosages. https://covid19criticalcare.com/covid-19-protocols/ (210)



Other Useful Resources I’ve bookmarked to check out:

(217) (218) (219) (220) (221) (222) (223) (224) (225) (226) (227) (228) (229) (230) (231) (232) (233) (234) (235) (236)


Penny... on Health
Penny... on Health

Truth-seeker, ever-questioning, ever-learning, ever-researching, ever delving further and deeper, ever trying to 'figure it out'. This site is a legacy of sorts, a place to collect thoughts, notes, book summaries, & random points of interests.

DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is not medical science or medical advice. I do not have any medical training aside from my own research and interest in this area. The information I publish is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, disorder, pain, injury, deformity, or physical or mental condition. I just report my own results, understanding & research.