Fundamentals of Molecular Nano-Communication Networks [Lecture]

IN Graphene

This is a lecture by Ian Akyildiz in Oct 2022 on nanotechnology and how we can replicate nature to create intra nano body networks / nanomachines, as well as what the current limitations are (good to know), how graphene is wonderful (omitted how toxic it is), and how having zillions of nano devices in our blood cells is a “huge revolution” that will “save humanity” and make us live longer. (yeah, right).

Fundamentals of Molecular Nano-Communication Networks

11 Oct 2022 | Source: YouTube | Mirrors: Rumble | Rumble | Telegram

Ian Akyildiz
Broadband Wireless Networking Lab
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology


Nanotechnology is providing a new set of tools to the engineering community to design and manufacture devices in a scale ranging from one to a few hundred nanometers.

At this scale, nanomachines, which are the most basic autonomous nano-devices able to compute, store data, sense and actuate, will cooperate and share information through their interconnection into nano-communication networks.

In this talk, the MoNaCo project is presented which is recently funded by the US NSF.

The project is focused on investigating the use of molecules to encode and transmit information among nanomachines as a viable solution to the communication needs at the nanoscale, by taking into account the limitations of the nano-devices in terms of energy consumption, computation and application environments (e.g. intra-body nano-medicine).

Unlike traditional communication technologies, molecular communication represents a radically new communication paradigm, which demands novel solutions, including the identification of existing molecular communication mechanisms, the establishment of the foundations of molecular information theory, or the development of architectures and networking protocols for nanomachines.

The MoNaCo project will make contributions along four broad directions: the theoretical characterization of the molecular communication channel for a network of nanomachines, the definition of suitable molecular communication protocols for the transmission of information, the engineering of a standard tool for the simulation of molecular nano-communication networks and the realization of a testbed for their experimental validation.

Since to date the realization of artificial nanomachines is still under development, the MoNaCo testbed will be based on genetically engineered bacteria and their molecular communication capabilities.

Ian Akyildiz Biography

Ian Akyildiz received his BS, MS, and PhD degrees in Computer Engineering from the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, in 1978, 1981 and 1984, respectively.

Currently, he is the Ken Byers Chair Professor with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Director of Broadband Wireless Networking Laboratory, Chair of the Telecommunication Group at Georgia Tech.

Dr. Akyildiz is an Honorary Professor with School of Electrical Engineering at the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, and Founding Director of N3Cat (NaNoNetworking Center in Catalunya) in Barcelona, Spain, since June 2008.

He is also an Honorary Professor with University of Pretoria, South Africa since March 2009.

Dr. Akyildiz is an IEEE FELLOW (1996) and an ACM FELLOW (1997) and received numerous awards from several organizations including IEEE and ACM.

His current research interests are in Nanonetworks, Cognitive Radio Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks


2011 Images from Graphene 2011, ImageNano, Bilbao, Spain, April 11-14, 2011. (01)

Published Papers

  1. Akyildiz, I. F., Brunetti, F., and Blazquez, C., “Nanonetworks: A New Communication Paradigm,” Computer Networks (Elsevier), vol. 52, pp. 2260-2279, August 2008.
  2. Parcerisa L. and Akyildiz, I. F.,“Molecular Communication Options for Long Range Nanonetworks,” Computer Networks Journal (Elsevier), vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2753-2766, November 2009.
  3. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Graphene-based Nano-antennas for Electromagnetic Nanocommunications in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of EUCAP 2010, Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010.
  4. Akyildiz, I. F., Jornet, J. M. and Pierobon, M., “Propagation Models for Nanocommunication Networks,” in Proc. of EUCAP, Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010.
  5. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Channel Capacity of Electromagnetic Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of ICC 2010, Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010.
  6. Gregori, M. and Akyildiz, I.F., “A New NanoNetwork Architecture using Flagellated Bacteria and Catalytic Nanomotors,” IEEE JSAC (Journal of Selected Areas in Communications), vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 612-619, May 2010.
  7. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I.F., “A Physical End-to-End Model for Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE JSAC (Journal of Selected Areas in Communications), vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 602-611, May 2010.
  8. Akyildiz, I. F. and Jornet, J. M., “Electromagnetic Wireless Nanosensor Networks,” Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 1, pp.3-19, June 2010.
  9. Cobo-Rus, L. C. and Akyildiz, I. F.,“Bacteria-based Communication in Nanonetworks” , Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 244-256, December 2010.
  10. Akyildiz, I. F. and Jornet, J. M., “The Internet of Nano-Things,” IEEE Wireless Communication Magazine, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 58-63, December 2010
  11. Abadal, S., Akyildiz, I. F., “Automata Modeling of Quorum Sensing for Nanocommunication Networks,” Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp 74-83, March 2011.
  12. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Information Capacity of Diffusion-based Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks,” in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication, INFOCOM, Miniconference, Shanghai, China, pp. 506-510, April 2011.
  13. Abadal, S., Jornet, J. M., Llatser, I., Cabellos-Aparicio, A., Alarcon, E. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Wireless NanoSensor Networks using Graphene-based Nano-Antennas,” in GRAPHENE 2011, ImagineNano, Bilbao, Spain, April 2011.
  14. Kuran, M. S., Yilmaz, H. B., Tugcu, T. and Akyildiz, I. F. “Modulation Techniques for Communication via Diffusion in Nanonetworks,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.
  15. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Low-Weight Channel Coding for Interference Mitigation in Electromagnetic Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.
  16. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Information Capacity of Pulse-based Wireless Nanosensor Networks,” in Proc. of the 8th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, pp. 80-88, June 2011.
  17. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Diffusion-based Noise Analysis for Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 6, June 2011.
  18. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Noise Analysis in Ligand-binding Reception for Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 4168-4182, September 2011.
  19. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Channel Modeling and Capacity Analysis for Electromagnetic Wireless Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 3211-3221, October 2011.
  20. Akyildiz, I. F., Jornet, J. M., and Pierobon, M. “Nanonetworks: A New Frontier in Communications,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 84-89, November 2011.
  21. Abadal, S., Akyildiz, I. F., “Bio-Inspired Synchronization for Nanocommunication Networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Houston, USA, pp. 1-5, Dec. 2011.
  22. Kuran, M.S., Yilmaz, H. B., Tugcu, T., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Interference Effects on Modulation Techniques in Diffusion Based Nanonetworks,” Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 65-73, March 2012.
  23. Llatser, I., Abadal, S., Gómez Cid-Fuents, R., Jornet, J. M., Cabellos-Aparicio, A., Alarcon, E., Sole-Pareta, J., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Prospects of Graphene-enabled Wireless Communications,” in GRAPHENE, Brussels, Belgium, April 2012.
  24. Jornet, J. M., and Akyildiz, I. F., “The Internet of Multimedia Nano-Things in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of the 18th European Wireless Conference, EW, Poznan, Poland, pp. 1-8, April 2012.
  25. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Joint Energy Harvesting and Communication Analysis for Perpetual Wireless NanoSensor Networks in the Terahertz Band,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 570-580, May 2012.
  26. Gomez Cid-Fuentes, R., Jornet, J. M., Akyildiz, I. F., and Alarcon, E., “A Receiver Architecture for Pulse-based Electromagnetic Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 4937-4942, June 2012.
  27. Meng, L. S., Yeh, P. C., Chen, K. C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “A Diffusion-Based Binary Digital Communication System,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 4985-4989, June 2012.
  28. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Intersymbol and Co-channel Interference in Diffusion-based Molecular Communication,” in Proc. of the 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Molecular and Nano Scale Communication (MoNaCom), ICC, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 6126-6131, June 2012.
  29. Akyildiz, I. F., Fekri, F., Sivakumar, R., Forest, C. R., and Hammer, B. K., “MoNaCo: Fundamentals of Molecular Nano-communication Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 19, no. 5, pp 12-18, October 2012.
  30. Meng, L. S., Yeh, P. C., Chen, K. C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Optimal Detection for Diffusion-Based Communications in the Presence of ISI,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Anaheim, California, pp. 3819-3824, Dec. 2012.
  31. Meng, L. S., Yeh, P. C., Chen, K. C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “MIMO Communications Based on Molecular Diffusion,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Anaheim, California, pp. 5380-5385, Dec. 2012.
  32. Akkas, M. A., Akyildiz, I. F., and Sokullu, R, “Terahertz Channel Modeling of Underground Sensor Networks in Oil Reservoirs,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Anaheim, California, pp. 543-548, Dec. 2012.
  33. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “The Internet of Multimedia Nano-Things,” Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 242-251, Dec. 2012.
  34. Pierobon, M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Capacity of a Diffusion-based Molecular Communication System with Channel Memory and Molecular Noise,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 942–954, February 2013.
  35. Pierobon, M. , Bardill, J. P., Hammer, B. K., and Akyildiz, I. F., “A Biological Pulse Generator Circuit for Bacteria-based Molecular Communication,” poster at the Frontiers in Systems and Synthetic Biology ’13 (FSSB’13), Atlanta, GA, USA, March 2013.
  36. Bicen, A. O. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Molecular Transport in Microfluidic Channels for Flow-induced Molecular Communication,” in Proc. IEEE MoNaCom 2013 (in conjunction with IEEE ICC), Budapest, Hungary, pp. 776-770, June 2013.
  37. Bicen, A. O. and Akyildiz, I. F., “System-Theoretic Analysis and Least-Squares Design of Microfluidic Channels for Flow-Induced Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 20, pp. 5000-5013, October 2013.
  38. Wang, P., Jornet, J. M., Malik, M. G. A., Akkari, N., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Energy and Spectrum-aware MAC Protocol for Perpetual Wireless Nanosensor Networks in the Terahertz Band,” Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 11, no.8, pp. 2541-2555, November 2013.
  39. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Graphene-based Plasmonic Nano-antennas for Terahertz Band Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Special Issue on Emerging Technologies in Communications, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 685-694, December 2013.
  40. Chahibi, Y., Pierobon, M., Song, S. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “A Molecular Communication System Model for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3468-3483, Dec. 2013.
  41. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Graphene-based Plasmonic Nano-transceiver for Terahertz Band Communication,” in Proc. of the 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Hague, Netherlands, pp. 492-496, April 2014.
  42. Jornet, J. M. and Akyildiz, I. F., “Femtosecond-long Pulse-based Modulation for Terahertz Band Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1742-1754, May 2014.
  43. Han, C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Distance-Aware Multi-Carrier (DAMC) Modulation in Terahertz Band Communication,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Sydney, Australia, pp. 5461-5467, June 2014.
  44. Pierobon, M., and Akyildiz, I. F., “A Statistical-physical Model of Interference in Diffusion-based Molecular Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 2085-2095, June 2014.
  45. Pierobon, M., Jornet, J. M., Akkari, N., Almasri, S., and Akyildiz, I.F., “A routing framework for energy harvesting wireless nanosensor networks in the Terahertz Band,” ACM-Springer Journal of Wireless Networks (ACM WINET), vol. 20, no 5, pp. 1169-1183, July 2014.
  46. Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “End-to-end Propagation Noise and Memory Analysis for Molecular Communication over Microfluidic Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 2432-2443, July 2014.
  47. Chahibi, Y., Akyildiz, I. F., and Song, S.O. “Antibody-Based Molecular Communication for Targeted Drug Delivery Systems,” in Proc. of IEEE EMBC, Chicago, USA, pp. 5707-5710, August 2014.
  48. Akyildiz, I. F., Jornet, J. M., and Han, C., “TeraNets: Ultra-broadband Communication Networks in the Terahertz Band,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 130-135, August 2014.
  49. Akyildiz, I. F., Jornet, J. M., and Han, C., “Terahertz Band: Next Frontier for Wireless Communications,” Physical Communication (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 12, pp. 16-32, September 2014.
  50. Meng, L. S., Yeh, P. C., Chen, K. C., and Akyildiz, I. F.,“On Receiver Design for Diffusion-Based Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 62, no. 22, pp. 6032-6044, November 2014.
  51. Chahibi, Y., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Molecular Communication Noise and Capacity Analysis for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 3891-3903, November 2014.
  52. Moldovan, A., M. A. Ruder, Akyildiz, I. F., and Gerstacker W., “LOS and NLOS Channel Modeling for Terahertz Wireless Communication with Scattered Rays,” in Proc. of the First International Workshop on Mobile Communications in Higher Frequency Bands (MCHFB), IEEE Globecom, Austin, Texas, December 2014.
  53. Lehtomaki, J., Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “On the Nanoscale Electromechanical Wireless Communication in the VHF Band,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 311-323, January 2015.
  54. Akyildiz, I. F., Pierobon, M., Balasubramaniam, S., and Koucheryavy, Y., “Internet of BioNanoThings,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 32-40, March 2015.
  55. Unluturk, B. D., Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Genetically Engineered Bacteria-based BioTransceivers for Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1271-1281, April 2015.
  56. Han, C., Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Multi-Ray Channel Modeling and Wideband Characterization for Wireless Communications in the THz Band,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2402-2412, May 2015.
  57. Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Interference Modeling and Capacity Analysis for Microfluidic Molecular Communication Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 570-579, May 2015
  58. Chahibi, Y., Akyildiz, I. F., Balasubramaniam, S., and Koucheryavy, Y., “Molecular Communication Modeling of Antibody-mediated Drug Delivery System,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 1683-1695, July 2015.
  59. Han, C., Akyildiz, I. F., and Gerstacker, W. H., “Timing Acquisition for Pulse-based Wireless Systems in the Terahertz Band,” (invited paper) in Proc. of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication (ACM NANOCOM), Boston, USA, September 2015
  60. Chahibi, Y., Pierobon, M., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Biodistribution Estimation through the Molecular Communication Paradigm,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 2410-2420, October 2015.
  61. Zhang, C., Han, C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Three Dimensional End-to-End Modeling and Directivity Analysis for Graphene-based Antennas in the Terahertz Band,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, San Diego, USA, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2015.
  62. Liaskos, C., Tsioliaridou, A., Pitsillides, A., Akyildiz, I. F., Kantartzis, N., Lalas, A., Dimitropoulos, X., Ioannidis, S., Kafesaki, M., and Soukoulis, C., “Design and Development of Software Defined Metamaterials for Nanonetworks,” IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 12-25, Fourth Quarter 2015.
  63. Han, C., Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Multi-Wideband Waveform Design for Distance-adaptive Wireless Communications in the Terahertz Band,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 64, no.4, pp. 910-922, February 2016.
  64. Lehtomaki, J., Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Statistical Analysis of Interference for Nanoscale Electromechanical Wireless Communication at VHF-Band,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 64, no.8, pp. 2040-2050, April 2016.
  65. Akkari, N., Jornet, J. M., Wang, P., Fadel, E., Rifae, L., Malik, M. G. A., Almasri, S., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Joint Physical and Link Layer Error Control Analysis for Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band,” Wireless Networks (Springer), vol. 22, no.4, pp. 1221-1233, May 2016.
  66. Han, C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Distance-aware Bandwidth-adaptive Resource Allocation for Wireless Systems in the THz Band,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 2130-2142, May 2016.
  67. Akyildiz, I. F., and Jornet, J. M., “Realizing Ultra – Massive MIMO (1024×1024) Communication in the (0.06 – 10) Terahertz Band,” Nano Communication Networks (Elsevier) Journal, vol. 8, pp. 46-54, June 2016.
  68. Moldovan, A., Kisseleff, S., Akyildiz, I. F., Gerstacker, W.,“Data Rate Maximization for Terahertz Communication Systems using Finite Alphabets,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 1-7, June 2016.
  69. Bicen, A. O., Akyildiz, I. F., Balasubramaniam, S., Koucheryavy, Y., “Linear Channel Modeling and Error Analysis for Intra/Inter Cellular Ca2+ Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 488-498, July 2016.
  70. Jian, Y., Bhuvana, K., Austin, C. M., Bicen, A. O., Perdomo, J., Patel, S., Akyildiz, I. F., Forest, C. R., Raghupathy, R., “nanoNS3: Simulating Bacterial Molecular Communication based Nanonetworks in Network Simulator 3,” in Proc. ACM NanoCom 2016, New York City, New York, September 2016.
  71. Petrov, V., Moltchanov, D., Akyildiz, I. F., and Koucheryavy, Y., “Propagation Delay and Loss Analysis for Bacteria-based Nanocommunications,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 627-638, Oct. 2016.
  72. Unluturk, B. D., Balasubramaniam S., and Akyildiz, I. F., “The Impact of Social Behavior on the Attenuation and Delay of Bacterial Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 959-969, Dec. 2016.
  73. Unluturk, B. D., and Akyildiz, I. F., “An End-to-end Model of Plant Pheromone Channel for Long Range Molecular Communications,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, Dec. 2016.
  74. Chahibi, Y., Akyildiz, I. F., and Balasingham, I., “Propagation Modeling and Analysis of Molecular Motors in Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 917-927, Dec. 2016.
  75. Akkari, N., Wang, P., Jornet, J. M., Fadel, E., Elrefaei, L., Malik, A., Almasri, S., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Distributed Timely-Throughput Optimal Scheduling for the Internet of Nano-Things,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1202-1212, Dec. 2016.
  76. Moldovan A.M., Karunakaran R., Akyildiz I.F., and Gerstacker, W., “Coverage and Achievable Rate Analysis for Indoor Terahertz Wireless Networks,” IEEE ICC Conference, Paris, France, June 2017.
  77. Nie, S., Akyildiz, I. F., “Three-Dimensional Dynamic Channel Modeling and Tracking for Terahertz Band Indoor Communications,” to appear in the 28th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (IEEE PIMRC 2017), Oct. 2017.
  78. Han, C., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Three-Dimensional End-to-end Modeling and Wideband Analysis for Graphene-enabled Terahertz Band Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017.
  79. Han, C., Akyildiz, I. F., and Gerstacker, W. H., “Timing Acquisition Algorithms and Error Analysis for Pulse-based Terahertz Band Communications,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017.
  80. Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “A Statistical Signal Model for Engineered Bacteria-based BioReceivers in Molecular Communication,” submitted for journal publication, July 2016, revised October 2016.
  81. Bicen, A. O., and Akyildiz, I. F., “Shannon Meets Fick on the Microfluidic Channel: Physical Limits for the Information Rates in Molecular Communication,” submitted for journal publication, July 2016, revised September 2016.


  • 9:19 Nano Materials
  • 12:14 Abstract Picture of a Nano Machine
  • 13:45 Integrated Devices, DNA Scaffolding
  • 14:30 Nano Batteries, Carbon Nanotubes, Physical/Chemical/Biological Nanosensors
  • 15:27 Nano Memories, Zinc Oxide nanowires, piezoelectric nano-generators (lifetime potential)
  • 16:44 Gold Nano Memories
  • 20:33 Energy Sources
  • 22:10 Biotransisters
  • 24:08 Antenna from a Moth
  • 30:29 Man-Made Machines
  • 31:10 Internet of Things
  • 32:52 Chemical Attacks
  • 33:27 Target Wireless Networks
  • 35:38 Spreading Loss and Absorption Loss
  • 50:47 What is a Molecular Motor
  • 55:27 Bacterial Communication
  • 59:50 The Communication Domain
  • 1:00:07 Challenges
  • 1:09:10 Research Challenges

Notes taken from Transcript and notes/images as I was looking things up whilst watching.

Intro: We are in one of the same projects so that’s great so he’s of course very well known in this area of wireless sensor networks. He currently directs a laboratory on a wireless networking, and it’s a great laboratory I have been there many times and it’s great because they do both theory and practice. He has seen many awards that will take me at least 15 minutes to go over, which I won’t. He is interested in Nano Networks, Cognitive Radio Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks. Today he will talk to us about Fundamentals of Molecular Nano communication Networks.

Ian F. Akyildiz

Thanks for attending my presentation. I became interested in Nano networks in 2005 because my students were seeking Professor positions and kept complaining that many places were looking for Nano experts. So, I developed an interest in Nano technology. I experienced the microchip era in the 70s during my school years, and witnessing the rapid advancement of the internet and other high-tech innovations, I became curious about how these Nano machines would communicate. That’s when I began my research. I have been in Barcelona since 1973, initially as a hippie, and later I started visiting the UPC. During one of my visits, I suggested the idea of creating a center, which was eventually established in 2008. It’s a very active area with numerous ongoing research projects.

  • Exploring Nano device validation and communication.
  • Believed molecular communication was the best way for nanoscale machines to communicate, inspired by biology.

  • Students: Fernando Brunetti (Madrid, PhD microsensors), Cristina Blázquez (Barcelona), Josep Miquel Jornet, Massimiliano Pierobon, Lluís Parcerisa Giné
    • 2008 Brunetti, Akyildiz: Nanonetworksa new communication paradigm (PDF)
  • Jornet, who focused on molecular technologies, joined his lab in 2009. They realized that operating nanoscale machines through electromagnetic (EM) approaches was also possible.
    • 2010 Akyildiz, Jornet: Electromagnetic wireless nanosensor networks (PDF)
    • 2011 Akyildiz, Jornet, Pierobon Nanonetworks: A New Frontier in Communications (ACM | IEEE | Video)

Found 2017 article Biology, Engineering, and Robotics Converge with Dr. Ian Akyildiz on “Bacteria-Based Nanomachines” and “Bio-Nanothings communication with Internet of Things devices“.

So, what is a nano network?


These Nanotechnology devices, which are the most basic functional units at the nanoscale. They include computers, processors, data storage, memories, sensing devices (Nano sensors), sensing units, and even actuating units and antennas—all at the nanoscale.


The key aspect we are discussing is how these nano machines can communicate with each other, which brings us to the concept of nanoscale networking, so how we can connect these nano machines in order to perform complex tasks and enable communication among them. (02)

Designing Nanomachines

Currently, there are three different approaches being taken by nano experts for the design and development of these nano machines.

  1. The first approach is known as the “top-down” approach. It involves taking machines at the microscale level and scaling them down to the nano level. This process is referred to as “top-down.”
  2. The second approach is the “bottom-up” approach, which involves starting from scratch and creating nano machines. In this approach, nano materials, such as graphene, are utilized to develop nanoscale components and modules. These components are then used to build the nano machines.
  3. The third approach is to look to nature for inspiration. Nature already provides us with numerous examples of nanoscale machines, such as those found in human cells. By studying and imitating these natural phenomena, we can create our own nano machines. This approach is often referred to as the “biological” or “natural” track, as we learn from and mimic nature.
  4. The other approach is a hybrid, combining material-based components with those inspired by nature for developing nano devices.

There is ongoing development of nano machines, and currently, there is no definitive winner between the top-down and bottom-up approaches or between material-based and organic-based components.

He said “There is no Complete NanoMachines in existence yet” (really? *cough*)

“Complete nano machines do not yet exist, although there are existing nano processors and modules.”

Nobel Prize for Graphene

2010, Russian inventors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, received the Nobel Prize in Physics for “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene

  • Andre Geim
    • Dutch citizen. Born 1958 in Sochi, Russia. Ph.D. 1987 from Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia. Director of Manchester Centre for Meso-science & Nanotechnology, Langworthy Professor of Physics and Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Research Professor, University of Manchester, UK.
  • Konstantin Novoselov
    • British and Russian citizen. Born 1974 in Nizhny Tagil, Russia. Ph.D. 2004 from Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Professor and Royal Society Research Fellow, University of Manchester, UK.

Graphene Flagship

“Graphene is gaining significant attention, and there are flagship activities like the Graphene Flagship project in the European Community, which involves several billion dollars of investment and over a decade of effort (2013-)”

  • He is involved in the Graphene Flagship project.
  • There is another project called Guardian Angels, focused on nanosensors.
  • There are six finalists in the flagship activities, and the winners will be decided in 2023.

The Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) Flagships. The European Commission has selected six futuristic proposals to compete for two huge flagship projects that will apply information and communication technologies to “social problems”. (03) (04)

  • The six shortlisted projects include:
    1. The Human Brain Project; (05)
    2. Graphene, which will develop the thinnest conducting material known for data storage and processing platforms; (see also Graphene Flagship post) (06)
    3. Guardian Angels, a project to develop nanoscale sensors and interfaces for detecting and responding to environmental danger;
    4. Robot Companions, which will develop soft-bodied ‘perceptive’ robots as companions for the lonely;
    5. FuturICT, for planetary-scale modeling of human activities and their impact on the environment;
    6. ITFoM (IT Future of Medicine), which will develop ways to apply research data more efficiently in health care.

EU Commission also has flagships for: (07)


Graphene, Nanotubes & Nanoribbons

  • The bottom track focuses on nano materials, such as nanotubes, nanoribbons, and the emerging graphene. Nanotubes & Nanoribbons were the most widely-used, but now graphene is the up and coming.
  • Graphene is a single sheet of carbon atoms bonded in a honeycomb crystal lattice structure.
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are folded nanoribbons (1991)
  • Graphene nanoribbons (GNR) are thin strips of graphene (2004)

  • Graphene has the potential to create new components such as batteries, memories, processors, antennas, and transceivers at the nanoscale.
  • Graphene has been analyzed for its electrical and quantum mechanical properties. It has high current capacity, high thermal conductivity, and is energy-efficient and mechanically strong.
  • Additionally, it has a very high sensitivity (excellent sensing capabilities).
  • Utilizing these advantageous properties, we can develop systems using graphene.

NM Based Nano-Machine Architecture

2010 Akyildiz, Jornet: Electromagnetic wireless nanosensor networks (PDF)

  • Abstract picture of a nano machine that they are trying to create.
  • In the typical nano machine, we incorporate components like batteries, nano sensing units, actuators, memories, and antennas.
  • Challenges arise in developing these modules and integrating them into this platform.

DNA Scaffolding

  • One research solution is the use of DNA scaffolding, where components are integrated using DNA strands such as adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, etc.
  • You take this strip of these DNAs and then glue them in these components.
  • These DNA strands are utilized to connect and assemble the components, creating integrated devices.
  • This integration process is still ongoing.



  • Physical nanosensors – have these carbon nanotubes. If they experience external forces, they can sense them.
  • Chemical nanosensors – can sense chemical units like gas molecules. These sensing units exist separately or as biosensors.


  • My colleague is very famous in this area, works on nano batteries.
  • You can see these zinc oxide wires, which are infinitesimally small.
  • They can generate power from vibrations, and he has already demonstrated them as separate standalone components.


  • Nanoprocessors are already in our latest laptops. The newest laptops already have 33-nanometer processors, and 20-nanometer processors are coming out.
  • In New York and Manchester, they had the world’s smallest processor, measuring one nanometer in 2008. You can see it under the microscope on the right-hand side.
  • Nanoprocessors are already on the market.


  • Nano memories are also being developed using Nano materials. The objective is to create single-atom memories, meaning to store a single bit in a single atom.
  • If you’ve never heard of Richard Feynman, it’s worth mentioning that he was a very interesting character. He was one of the important people in the Manhattan Project and received the Nobel Prize in 1965. (10) (11) (12)
    • In one of his famous talks in 1959, he gave an example of using 5x5x5 atoms to store a single bit, avoiding inter-atom interference, making it 125 atoms per bit.
  • In computer science, people are using DNA for computing, aiming to use 32 atoms per bit. The objective is to have a single bit for a single atom.
  • Now, people are developing gold Nano memories or magnetic memories, which will have a gigantic capacity for storage. Imagine having a huge storage capacity in very small devices.


  • In antenna conferences, you will find several papers on Nano antennas, where people are trying to develop single carbon nanotubes or nano-dipole arrays of them for nano-dipole configurations.

Organic Nanomachines

  • Natural Nano machines: Eukaryotic cells, neurons, bacteria
  • Communication in nature: Molecules like proteins, ions, hormones, chemotaxis
  • Learning from natural components to develop Nano machines
  • Energy sources in cells: ATP synthesis in mitochondria
  • Application of energy spray for mobile devices (concept, not yet in the market)

Now, let’s go through the natural track. There are a lot of nanomachines in nature, like eukaryotic cells or cells like neurons. I will show you all these components: mitochondria, nucleus, and others like gap junctions. They are really nanomachines in the natural world.

On the right-hand side, you can see bacteria which are also nanomachines in nature.

Now, you can also see these nanomachines in nature that communicate. On the top, you can see eukaryotic cells, which are true nanomachines. They use molecules like proteins, ions, hormones, and pheromones to communicate with each other.

Down there, you can see bacteria also communicating. They achieve this as nanomachines, binding to each other or releasing molecules like DNA or autoinducers, which are then captured by other bacteria. This already exists in nature.

Now, let’s take a look at the eukaryotic cell that I mentioned and examine all these components step by step. You can see the nucleus, DNA, vesicles, gap junctions, receptors, and mitochondria.

Can we learn from these components and develop them in our physical world? Can we create nanomachines inspired by nature?

Nano-energy sources in nature

Here is a very good example of energy sources. In cells, useful energy is gained by combining glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and oxygen. This results in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy source for cells. Sometimes, when your sugar level is low, you may feel low on energy because the glucose level is low.

Now, you can see mitochondria under the microscope where they absorb amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and oxygen to generate energy for cells. This concept is already being used.

It was even featured in CNN news two years ago. There are already concepts being developed, such as sprays that can be applied to cell phones or mobile devices to help them gain energy.

Biological Transistors

So now, here is a topic about biotransistors. These pictures are from IEEE Spectrum last year. They had a special issue about this. As you can see here, how can we design them in the same way we design a silicon chip? We create biological transistors based on protein synthesis from DNA, as shown on the right-hand side.

All devices that produce silicon chips, may be reproduced as cells (living circuits) but certain chips are hitting the ceiling of Moore’s Law. (13)

Now we can try to create new chips as living cells, forming circuits. We can expand the capacity of these chips, and accordingly, they will have much more powerful functionalities than just silicon chips. That’s why we are saying that their capacity will increase.

Biological Transceivers

Can we also create transceivers? Like you can see, this cell releases molecules like proteins, and they float around. Can we mimic this and create a transceiver? It will release molecules, kind of like message packages.

Similarly, cells in nature receive these molecules through a process called ligand binding. These molecules come and are sucked in by the receiver, in this case. That’s called ligand binding process. Sometimes they get lost. Now, can we mimic this as a receiver and create our receivers for our machines? These are questions. (14) (15)

Moth Antenna

Molecular communication options for long range nanonetworks., 2009 (16)

Here is an antenna from a moth. You know, animals communicate, and they all have antennas. Pheromones, for example, come and are received by cuticles and evaluated. It’s kind of like receiving signals and then evaluating them. It’s a chemical communication. Can we do the chemical communication in our world?

Timestamp: 25:25

Hybrid Nanomachines

Long term, the next 20 years, I think we will have machines that will have certain parts from the nanomaterials, from the first part that I explained to you, and the second part maybe could be like learning from nature, and they will be put together as a hybrid Nano machine, like you can see here.

  • DNA memory (ultrahigh storage capacity)
  • Graphene-based processor (ultrafast computation)
  • Molecular communication transceiver (high biocompatibility)
  • Bio-electromechanical energy harvesting system (ultrahigh density energy storage)

Like zinc oxide wires and biological nanosensing units, and then maybe we can also have the nano-batteries learn from these mitochondria roles. So, that will be, in my opinion, the long-term solution: coming up with hybrid components and hybrid Nano machines.

So now, what I did so far is I explained to you the components. What people are trying to do. In my opinion, the first track will be faster, like doing all these nanomaterials. The second track will take longer because it’s not easy really to map everything in nature to our physical world.

Once these devices are developed and they can be used for many, many applications, especially when they are put together and they create these networks, one of the applications is kind of like intrabody Nano Networks.

Intrabody nanonetworks

Intrabody Nano networks are these Nano devices that will be injected into the body, for example, into the blood, and they will have zillions of them, like white and red blood cells, and they will be these initial cells, and then they will communicate cooperatively.

So, there’s a nice cooperative communication, and then they will attack the viruses and bacteria, right?

So, it sounds very science fiction, but that’s the reality.

All these diseases that you can imagine will be history, like diabetes, Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, depression, cancers, and malaria. So, the list goes on and on. So, in the medical field, there will be a huge revolution. My opinion is, once you solve all of these in the next 30 years, and I’m sure the nature will give us other problems in terms of health. So, I say that human life should be prolonged to 200 years, but I think there will be other problems.

Holy hell – this is the problem when the scientists don’t know the truth, they actually buy into the idea that their transhuman / synthetic biology inventions is actually going to help humanity?

Anyway, I’m taking a rest from taking notes from this lecture. We’re up to timestamp 27:27, you can watch the video for the rest.

See also: Intra Body Nano Network (5 Parts) to understand the opposing view to this synthetic takeover.

Unfortunately the PDF option doesn't print citations or any text that needs expanding. Will find another PDF solution another day - I've already lost half the day trying to get it to work. ~ May 9th, 2023

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Penny (
Penny (

Truth-seeker, ever-questioning, ever-learning, ever-researching, ever delving further and deeper, ever trying to 'figure it out'. This site is a legacy of sorts, a place to collect thoughts, notes, book summaries, & random points of interests.